US History Chapter 1 Review

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Terms in this set (...)

Funded the first British settlements allowed for wealthy investors to share
Joint Stock Company
The economic theory (idea) that a nation (country) could increase it's wealth and power by obtaining (getting) as much gold and silver ($) as possible and create a favorable (good) amount of trade.
Mercantilism
First successful British colony established in 1607 (by the Virginia Company) Led by John Smith. Goal of the VA company was to find gold, and get rich. Settlers did not find gold, and most died. Only 60 out of 400 survived between 1607-1609.
Jamestown
Second successful British Colony established in 1620
Plymouth
Discovery of new plants and animals in Americas led to exchange of goods between Europe and Americas. Ex. Corn potatoes, and tobacco taken to Europe. Cattle, sheep, horse, coffee, bananas taken to Americas. Ideas, Culture, Technology, people and diseases were exchanged.
Columbian Exchange
17th and 18th intellectual (smart) movement that emphasized human reason/rights, denounced religion as way of explaining the world. It influenced the founding fathers of this country.
Enlightenment
A movement that challenged church authority.
Great Awakening
His philosophy talks about what humans are like, and about choosing leaders and giving people power.
He said that every person should be allowed to feel safe and to protect their house, their family, their belongings and themselves. His ideas about government were used by countries like Canada and the United States, when they were trying to decide how to run things.
John Locke
Life, Liberty, and Property
Natural Rights of Man
Theory that said people in every society choose to be governed, as long as the government protects their natural rights. Since Britain had broken the social contract, colonists have the right to replace that government.
Social Contract Theory
Drew on Enlightenment ideas of Natural Rights and Social Contract. Stated a list of grievances towards King George III. Declared Independence for colonies from England.
Declaration of Independence
A system of government that creates a central government and local state governments. The powers of the national and state governments are divided and balanced.
Federalism
By creating three branches of government, the delegates built a "check and balance" system into the Constitution. This system was built so that no one branch of our government could become too powerful.
Checks and Balances
The separation of the power of government into different parts. 1. Executive Branch - Carries out the law, sign a bill into law, sign treaties, make appointments, example: The President and the agencies and departments.
2. Legislative Branch - Makes the law, ratify treaties and appointments. Example: Congress - House of Representatives and the Senate 3. Judicial Branch - Judges the law, declare a law unconstitutional. Example: The federal court system and Supreme Court
Separation of Powers
Written by the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary War. They were written to give the colonies some sense of a unified government. Once the thirteen colonies became the thirteen states, however, each one began to act alone in its own best interest. A new governing document was needed in order for these new states to act together, to become a nation. They became effective on March 1, 1781, after all thirteen states had ratified them. They made the states and legislature supreme. There was no executive branch. Judicial functions were very limited. The resulting government was weak. Efforts to make it stronger failed. A convention called in May 1787 to re-write the Articles decided to draft an entirely new Constitution.
Articles of Confederation
Created because the Articles of Confederation were weak. This document is the basis for government in the United States. It spells out how the government is formed, who makes it up, and how to pass and amend laws.
Constitution
After the leaders of the new United States wrote the Constitution, they had to get the thirteen states to agree to it. Some of the states didn't want to agree unless they could add some specific rights for individual people. So in 1791 the United States added ten new rights to the Constitution. They are also called the first 10 Amendments.
Bill of Rights
War between France and Great Britain, led to conflict between the colonies and Britain over taxation
French and Indian War
This was a political battle that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
American Revolution
This war was fought between the British Empire and the United States from 1812 to 1814 on land in North America and at sea. More than half of the British forces were made up of Canadian militia (volunteers). Established US as truly independent sovereign nation
War of 1812
_________________ were the first American political party and believed in the ideas of nationalism and industrialization and were brought up to believe that the government should be run by the elite.
Federalists
_____________ emerged as the Democratic-Republican Party and was led by Thomas Jefferson, believed that the vast majority of ordinary, less educated people, had the common sense and the skills required to run the new government.
Anti-Federalists
This led to the 12th Amendment
Election if 1800
He is famous for writing the Declaration of Independence and for being the third president of the United States. He ran against John Adams. He leaned toward a government run by the wealthy and wanted a government run by all men. His election showed that Americans wanted a leader who believed that all men were equal. He was president from 1801-1809. He guided the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France.
Thomas Jefferson
He fought for American Independence as a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress. He was a member of the team that worked on the Declaration of Independence and one of only two people who signed the Declaration to later become president (the other was Thomas Jefferson). During his presidency, his main accomplishment was keeping the United States out of war with France. France and Great Britain were at war and both wanted help from the US. The American public was divided. Some wanted to support France because France helped the US during the American Revolution. Others wanted to help Great Britain. Although it hurt his popularity at the time, Adams opted for peace and kept the country out of the war.
John Adams
This result and another confusing election in 1800 led to the 12th amendment in 1804. The most important part of the 12th amendment is that instead of casting two votes for President, each elector must pick a President AND a Vice President on his or her ballot. This ensures that the President will be paired with his running mate after the election. This has been the way we have operated the Electoral College since 1804.
12th Amendment
Established the principle of judicial review
Marbury v. Madison
The power of courts to decide the validity of acts of the legislative and executive branches of government.
Judicial Review
US warns European nations to stay out of American affairs/asserts sovereignty
Monroe Doctrine
Large area of Land purchased from France. It was the single largest purchase of land ever by the United States and doubled the size of the country.
Louisiana Purchase
taking over of land in the United States over just fifty years from 1803 to 1853 and its westward expansion to the Pacific Ocean. The idea that it was the divine right of the American people.
Manifest Destiny
He first ran for president in 1824 and lost the election to John Quincy Adams despite receiving more votes in the election. This was because no candidate received a majority of votes, leaving Congress to decide who would be president. They chose Adams. In 1828 he ran again and he won the election. He assumed more power than any president before him. The hiring and firing cabinet members, are still used by presidents today. He wanted a small, but strong federal government. He fought against the national bank saying that it helped the rich and hurt the poor. Was known for the Spoils System.
Andrew Jackson
System based on the policy of removing political opponents from federal offices and replacing them with party loyalists/friends. It had been adopted on a limited scale by previous presidents, notably Thomas Jefferson. Andrew Jackson extended the use of it believing that partisan (supporters) loyalty was a more important qualification for a job than competence or merit.
Spoils System
Agreement put forward by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter the Union as a free state. The Compromise also drew an imaginary line at 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, dividing the new Louisiana Territory into two areas, one north and one south. All of the Louisiana Territory north of this line was free territory, meaning that any territories that became states from this area would enable African-Americans to be free. The Compromise also encouraged people in the north to return runaway slaves to their homes and did not prohibit slavery, even in the free territories.
Missouri Compromise
This was an attempt to smooth out the confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). It allowed California to be admitted as a free state and the admission of New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory with slavery was left to to the decision of the people in relation to Popular Sovereignty on Slavery.
Compromise of 1850
This was passed on February 4, 1793 guaranteed the right of a owners to recover an escaped slave and required citizens to help in the return of escaped fugitive slaves.
Fugitive Slave Laws
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It put a human face on slavery. Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. Encouraged abolition in the North, enraged southerners.
Uncle Toms Cabin
White man who was against slavery and died fighting for it.
John Brown - Raid on Harper's Ferry, VA
A slave from Missouri, sued for freedom in 1846, argued that he lived with his master in free territory during 1830's. Supreme Court ruled against Scott.
Dred Scott (Dred Scottv. Sandford)
Passed in 1854, which organized the remaining territory acquired in the Louisiana Purchase so that such territories could be admitted to the Union as states. The bill divided the region into two territories. Territory north of the 40th parallel was called Nebraska Territory, and territory south of the 40th parallel was called Kansas Territory. Each territory would decide for itself whether or not to permit slavery. This stipulation repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which stated that slavery was prohibited north of 36° 30′.
Kansas Nebraska Act
The idea that people living in a territory had the right to decide by voting whether to allow slavery
Popular Sovereingty
Withdrawal (quit) from the union
Secession
CSA: In February of 1861 many of the states in the southern part of the United States decided to form their own country. They called it the Confederate States of America. However, the northern states did not agree that these states had the right to leave. This started the Civil War.
Confederacy
The first shots of the Civil War. Located in South Carolina
Fort Sumter
Who won the election of 1860?
Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865
Civil War