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35 terms

Science Vocabulary 1-35

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period
a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations
group
any number of entities (members) considered as a unit
substance
that which has mass and occupies space
subatomic particle
a particle that is less complex than an atom
proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
bond
a connection that fastens things together
molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
monatomic ion
an ion formed from a single atom
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
cation
a positively charged ion
anion
a negatively charged ion
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
ionic compound
a compound that consists of positive and negative ions
valence electron
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
shell
...
electron-dot-structure
consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valence electrons
ionize
become converted into ions
crystal
an orderly, three-dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
oxidation
the process of oxidizing
reduction
the act of reducing complexity
cathode
a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device
anode
a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device
electronegativity
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
convalent bond
A chemical bond formed when when atoms share electrons
single convalent bond
a covalent bond in which only one pair of elctrons is shared
double convalent bond
...
triple convalent bond
...
diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
polar molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
nonpolar molecule
molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends