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Questions from Middle Ages to Modern Europe. Still posting all terms


Italian family who ruled Tuskanny through their wealth and influence. They were early patrons of the arts.

Giovanni Medici

Founded the Medici "dynasty"


Cultural center of the Italian Renassiance


Means Rebirth


Land grants given by a king during the Middle Ages

Magna Carta 1215

Placed restrictions on the power of a king. One of the most influencal documents of the Middle Ages

Joan of Arc

National heroine of France. Lead the French army to several victories during the Hundred Years' War.


Taxes for the Church

Hundred Years' War

War over the succession of the French throne between House of Valois (French) and the House of Plantagenet (English)

Charles V

Ruler of Hapsburg Empire


Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures. Famous works include David


Wrote Utopia


Promoted Intellectual inquiry, piety, and use of latin as common scholary langauge during the Northern Renaissance

Johann Gutenberg

Invented the movable printing press

Gutenberg Printing Press

Allowed the spead of news and book and lead to an increase in literacy


An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice


The father of humanism


A study of the classics

War of the Roses

Fought over the English line of succession between the Houses of Lancaster and York, Lancaster won

Christopher Colombus

Sailed for Spain and landed in the Carribean when looking for a new route to India

Da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.


Sailed for Spain and conquered the Aztecs


Sailed for Spain and conquered the Incas


Sailed for Portugal and is offically the first person the circumnavigate the globe but he died in the Phillipines


Sailed for England, defeated the Spanish armada, and circumnavigated the globe


Sales in which anxious individuals payed the church money in hopes of spending less time in purgatory

Augsberg Confession

Makes Martin Luther break away from the Church and the begin of Lutherism

95 Theses

Created by Martin Luther and nailed to a church door in Wittenberg. Reflect Luther's views on the church's practices of selling indulgences

Martin Luther

Founder of Lutherism


Wanted to purify the Anglican Church by removing all traces of Catholism

John Calvin

Founder of Calvinism. Believed in Predestination. Lead a moral reform group in Geneva

Leonardo da Vinci

Painter and inventer during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include the Mona Lisa

Ivan III

Ended Mongel rule in Russia. Russia's first czar


Painter during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel


Wrote The Prince

The Prince

Said that leaders should inspire fear to end politcal Instability


Describes the perfect society

Divine Comedy

A narrative epic poem describing heavan, hell, and puragtory

Colombian Exchange

The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa


This was one of the major killers of Native Americans during the period of exploration

Diet of Worms

Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical


Style in art and architecture of the 16th century, characterized by the distortion of elements such as proportion and space


Lead the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland


Early reformer, lead the Luddites

Las Casas

Protested against the poor treatment of the Native Americans


Against baptism at birth


Believe in pre-destination

Peace of Augsberg

Allowed German princes to decide what religion their lands would follow (Catholism or Lutherism). Calvinism and Anabaptists were not recognized

Henry VIII

Adovcate for Absolutism. King of England who was famous for establishing the Angican Church in order to divorce his wife, Cathrine of Aragon

Bloody Mary

Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, tried to reestablish Catholism in England. Killed many Anglicans before she was succeeded by her sister Elizabeth

Elizabeth I

Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn, restored Angicanism in England. Defeated the Spanish Armada and is known as one of England's greatest queens


Otherwise known as the Catholic Reformation. Divided into three parts (Council of Trent, Inquisition, and Jesuits) which attempted to defend the Catholic Church from Protestantism

Council of Trent

Reformed bishop and priest conduct, reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, papal authority, seven sacraments, the power of indulgences, and the celibacy of clergy


A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s


Lead by Ignatious of Loyola, they teach and preach worldwide to promote Catholism

Pope Paul IV

Forced Jews to live in ghettos and created an idex of banned books

Black Death

Otherwise known as the Bubonic Plague, lead to a massive death rate during the 14th century


Feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions


Regulated artisian training, production, and goods distribution


French Calvinists

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout Frrance

Edict of Nantes

Made Catholism the offical religion of Fance but gave religious rights to Huguenots

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended the wars of religion, Calvinists gained legal recognition, German Princes were still allowed to determine the relgion of their own territories, Holy Roman Empire was weaken, and the Swiss Confederation and the United Provinces became countries

Scientific Revolution

A period of scientific and intellectual growth in Europe


Developed the laws of gravity, the three laws of planetary motion, and argued that light could be described mathmatically


Used the telescope to observe the sun's rotation as well as the craters of the moon. He also argued that the universe follows laws of mathmatics


Developed the heliocentric theory


Mapped the human circulatory and skeletal systems


A doubting or questioning state of mind, lead people to question the Church's teaches

Act of Supremacy

Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.

Johann Tetzel

The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.


The belief that all events are willed by God. God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell.


Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.

War of the Three Henrys

A French civil war between Henry III (the French king), Henry of Guise (a Catholic noble), and Henry of Navarre (a Protestant noble) resulting in Henry of Navarre's coronation as Henry IV.

Cardinal Richelieu

Principal minister to Louis XIII. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to insure the French monarchy as the embodiment of France.


Noble rebellions against Louis XIV

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