Italian family who ruled Tuskanny through their wealth and influence. They were early patrons of the arts.
Magna Carta 1215
Placed restrictions on the power of a king. One of the most influencal documents of the Middle Ages
Joan of Arc
National heroine of France. Lead the French army to several victories during the Hundred Years' War.
Hundred Years' War
War over the succession of the French throne between House of Valois (French) and the House of Plantagenet (English)
Promoted Intellectual inquiry, piety, and use of latin as common scholary langauge during the Northern Renaissance
An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice
War of the Roses
Fought over the English line of succession between the Houses of Lancaster and York, Lancaster won
Sailed for Spain and landed in the Carribean when looking for a new route to India
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Sailed for Portugal and is offically the first person the circumnavigate the globe but he died in the Phillipines
Sales in which anxious individuals payed the church money in hopes of spending less time in purgatory
Created by Martin Luther and nailed to a church door in Wittenberg. Reflect Luther's views on the church's practices of selling indulgences
Leonardo da Vinci
Painter and inventer during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include the Mona Lisa
Painter during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Style in art and architecture of the 16th century, characterized by the distortion of elements such as proportion and space
Peace of Augsberg
Allowed German princes to decide what religion their lands would follow (Catholism or Lutherism). Calvinism and Anabaptists were not recognized
Adovcate for Absolutism. King of England who was famous for establishing the Angican Church in order to divorce his wife, Cathrine of Aragon
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, tried to reestablish Catholism in England. Killed many Anglicans before she was succeeded by her sister Elizabeth
Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn, restored Angicanism in England. Defeated the Spanish Armada and is known as one of England's greatest queens
Otherwise known as the Catholic Reformation. Divided into three parts (Council of Trent, Inquisition, and Jesuits) which attempted to defend the Catholic Church from Protestantism
Council of Trent
Reformed bishop and priest conduct, reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, papal authority, seven sacraments, the power of indulgences, and the celibacy of clergy
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s
Otherwise known as the Bubonic Plague, lead to a massive death rate during the 14th century
Feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the wars of religion, Calvinists gained legal recognition, German Princes were still allowed to determine the relgion of their own territories, Holy Roman Empire was weaken, and the Swiss Confederation and the United Provinces became countries
Developed the laws of gravity, the three laws of planetary motion, and argued that light could be described mathmatically
Used the telescope to observe the sun's rotation as well as the craters of the moon. He also argued that the universe follows laws of mathmatics
The belief that all events are willed by God. God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell.
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
War of the Three Henrys
A French civil war between Henry III (the French king), Henry of Guise (a Catholic noble), and Henry of Navarre (a Protestant noble) resulting in Henry of Navarre's coronation as Henry IV.
Principal minister to Louis XIII. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to insure the French monarchy as the embodiment of France.