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76 terms

AP Euro: Middle Ages -Absolutism

Questions from Middle Ages to Modern Europe. Still posting all terms
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Medici
Italian family who ruled Tuskanny through their wealth and influence. They were early patrons of the arts.
Giovanni Medici
Founded the Medici "dynasty"
Florence
Cultural center of the Italian Renassiance
Renaissance
Means Rebirth
Fiefs
Land grants given by a king during the Middle Ages
Magna Carta 1215
Placed restrictions on the power of a king. One of the most influencal documents of the Middle Ages
Joan of Arc
National heroine of France. Lead the French army to several victories during the Hundred Years' War.
Tithes
Taxes for the Church
Hundred Years' War
War over the succession of the French throne between House of Valois (French) and the House of Plantagenet (English)
Charles V
Ruler of Hapsburg Empire
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures. Famous works include David
More
Wrote Utopia
Erasmus
Promoted Intellectual inquiry, piety, and use of latin as common scholary langauge during the Northern Renaissance
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the movable printing press
Gutenberg Printing Press
Allowed the spead of news and book and lead to an increase in literacy
Dante
An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice
Petrach
The father of humanism
Humanism
A study of the classics
War of the Roses
Fought over the English line of succession between the Houses of Lancaster and York, Lancaster won
Christopher Colombus
Sailed for Spain and landed in the Carribean when looking for a new route to India
Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Cortes
Sailed for Spain and conquered the Aztecs
Pizarro
Sailed for Spain and conquered the Incas
Magellen
Sailed for Portugal and is offically the first person the circumnavigate the globe but he died in the Phillipines
Drake
Sailed for England, defeated the Spanish armada, and circumnavigated the globe
Indulgences
Sales in which anxious individuals payed the church money in hopes of spending less time in purgatory
Augsberg Confession
Makes Martin Luther break away from the Church and the begin of Lutherism
95 Theses
Created by Martin Luther and nailed to a church door in Wittenberg. Reflect Luther's views on the church's practices of selling indulgences
Martin Luther
Founder of Lutherism
Puritans
Wanted to purify the Anglican Church by removing all traces of Catholism
John Calvin
Founder of Calvinism. Believed in Predestination. Lead a moral reform group in Geneva
Leonardo da Vinci
Painter and inventer during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include the Mona Lisa
Ivan III
Ended Mongel rule in Russia. Russia's first czar
Michelangelo
Painter during the Italian Renaissance. Famous works include The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince
The Prince
Said that leaders should inspire fear to end politcal Instability
Utopia
Describes the perfect society
Divine Comedy
A narrative epic poem describing heavan, hell, and puragtory
Colombian Exchange
The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Smallpox
This was one of the major killers of Native Americans during the period of exploration
Diet of Worms
Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical
Mannerism
Style in art and architecture of the 16th century, characterized by the distortion of elements such as proportion and space
Zwingli
Lead the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland
Wycliffe
Early reformer, lead the Luddites
Las Casas
Protested against the poor treatment of the Native Americans
Anabaptists
Against baptism at birth
Calvinists
Believe in pre-destination
Peace of Augsberg
Allowed German princes to decide what religion their lands would follow (Catholism or Lutherism). Calvinism and Anabaptists were not recognized
Henry VIII
Adovcate for Absolutism. King of England who was famous for establishing the Angican Church in order to divorce his wife, Cathrine of Aragon
Bloody Mary
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, tried to reestablish Catholism in England. Killed many Anglicans before she was succeeded by her sister Elizabeth
Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn, restored Angicanism in England. Defeated the Spanish Armada and is known as one of England's greatest queens
Counter-Reformation
Otherwise known as the Catholic Reformation. Divided into three parts (Council of Trent, Inquisition, and Jesuits) which attempted to defend the Catholic Church from Protestantism
Council of Trent
Reformed bishop and priest conduct, reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, papal authority, seven sacraments, the power of indulgences, and the celibacy of clergy
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s
Jesuits
Lead by Ignatious of Loyola, they teach and preach worldwide to promote Catholism
Pope Paul IV
Forced Jews to live in ghettos and created an idex of banned books
Black Death
Otherwise known as the Bubonic Plague, lead to a massive death rate during the 14th century
Serfdom
Feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Guilds
Regulated artisian training, production, and goods distribution
Huguenots
French Calvinists
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout Frrance
Edict of Nantes
Made Catholism the offical religion of Fance but gave religious rights to Huguenots
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the wars of religion, Calvinists gained legal recognition, German Princes were still allowed to determine the relgion of their own territories, Holy Roman Empire was weaken, and the Swiss Confederation and the United Provinces became countries
Scientific Revolution
A period of scientific and intellectual growth in Europe
Newton
Developed the laws of gravity, the three laws of planetary motion, and argued that light could be described mathmatically
Galilieo
Used the telescope to observe the sun's rotation as well as the craters of the moon. He also argued that the universe follows laws of mathmatics
Copernicus
Developed the heliocentric theory
Harvey
Mapped the human circulatory and skeletal systems
Skeptism
A doubting or questioning state of mind, lead people to question the Church's teaches
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Predestination
The belief that all events are willed by God. God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell.
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
War of the Three Henrys
A French civil war between Henry III (the French king), Henry of Guise (a Catholic noble), and Henry of Navarre (a Protestant noble) resulting in Henry of Navarre's coronation as Henry IV.
Cardinal Richelieu
Principal minister to Louis XIII. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to insure the French monarchy as the embodiment of France.
Fronde
Noble rebellions against Louis XIV