AP Statistics: Chapter 1
Terms in this set (47)
the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numerical data
Objects described by a set of data
Any characteristic of an individual (can be measured, recorded)
People, animals, things
Records which of several groups an individual belongs to
Take numeric values for future calculations or interpretations
What kind of variable is gender?
What kind of variable is race?
What kind of variable is heart beats/minute?
Tells what values a variable can be and how often it takes on these values (frequency)
Give a picture of a distribution, while including the actual data values
If all data falls within a small number of stems you can double the stems and place 0-4 on the first stem, and 5-9 on the second stem
Examining characteristics of a distribution
Center, shape, and spread
In a distribution, identify any...
Any major peak
A distribution with only one major peak
A distribution with two peaks
the right hand side and left hand side are approximate mirror images of each other
Right tail is longer
Mean is greater than median
Left tail is longer
Mean is less than median
Where is the mean in a distribution?
In the skew
A graph of distribution with one quantitative variable
Symetric or skew
Plots each observation against the time at which it was measured. Always mark the time scale on the horizontal axis and always the variable being measured on the vertical axis. Individual values may be connected. Trends should be noticed
Non-resistant to extreme values, and an outliers will pull it in one direction
Middle number when all values are in order, and resistant to extreme values
Median of the lower half of data
Median of the upper half of data
All data outside an acceptable range
A graph based on the 5 number summary (min, max, Q1, Q3, M)
s², of a set of observations is the average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean
s, is the square root of the variance
Standard deviation formula
The sum of the deviations of the observations from the mean is
Degree of freedom
n-1, refers to how many numbers must be known to before all n numbers are known
The first n-1 observation are...
Free to be any numbers
The final value is...
Is not free of a statistic
The spread about the mean
When does S=0?
Only when there is no spread (if all values are the same)
"s" is non-resistant/resistant?