World History Chapter 1
Terms in this set (22)
Sargon the Great
The first king of united Sumer, reigned from around 2330-2279 BCE. Before Sargon, each Sumerian city had its own king. Sargon was from a place north of Sumer called Akkad, and went south to Sumer and conquered it and united all the Sumerian cities. His family rules for 200 years, until citizen of Ur takes control of Sumer.
Capital of the Hebrew nation of Israel. David started the construction of it around 1000 BCE but never lived to see it finished. David's son Solomon finishes the construction with the Temple of Jerusalem, also called Solomon's Temple. After construction the Hebrew people went into debt to the Phoenicians and the only thing Solomon could pay them in was Hebrew labor. Most labor came from north Israel, which angered the northerners. After Solomon's death Israel was divided into the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah.
Temple of Jerusalem
Held the Ark of the Covenant, which held the Ten Commandments Moses received from God.
The temples in Sumerian cities. They were the tallest structures in the cities with the place of worship at the top point of the temple. Inside the ziggurat was its own mini-city. Education occurred in there and had their own fields and store houses. They were made out of clay, straw, and mud bricks. Constantly crumbled and had to be under constant maintenance.
King of Akkad and Sumer (also called King of Babylon, King of Justice) from 1792-1750 BCE. He recorded the first set of written laws. They were called the Code of Hammurabi.
Code of Hammurabi
Written between 1792-1750 BCE. First ever set of written laws. Had 282 laws which they said were passed down from the gods. The codes were not to be fair, they were harsh, unjust, and applied no equality but assigned responsibility and clear disputes. Gave more freedom to the upper class than to the peasants.
Epic of Gilgamesh
An epic poem made after the real Gilgamesh. which reigned around 2600 BCE. People started to tell elaborated stories about the king who was part man part God. Was the first ever recorded story around 1900BCE. Poem was recorded on stone tablets and wore over time, so the full story is unknown.
One of the invading cultures, the other being the Kassites, which took over Sumer from the Babylonians and were the people who destroyed the city of Babylon. They didn't stay in Sumer mainly because the number of Kassites. European speaking culture. Military culture that was able to use iron for weapons. Wealthy from trading iron with every one and were the first iron smiths.
Mesopotamian Dark Ages
During the Hittites and the Kassites cultural domination humanities didn't progress and so called it the Dark Ages.
Capital of the Assyrian Empire when the Assyrian ruled Mesopotamia around the 12th century BCE. The city was the biggest of its time. The city housed a library that held all the information of the ancient world come from the library of ninevah.
The new Babylonians that ruled from 612-539 BCE. The greatest city was Babylon, which was the biggest in the world during its time. The city was said the have Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which according to the Greeks were one of the seven wonders of the world. The Chaldeans were the ones that captured the Hebrews and took over the kingdom of Judah. In 539 BCE the Persians defeated the Chaldeans. (Greatest King of the Chaldeans was Nebuchadnezzar who reigned from 605-562 BCE.
The Greatest King of the Chaldeans that reigned from 605-562 BCE. He was in control of the Chaldeans when they took over the kingdom of Judah and forced the Hebrews into captivity.
First pharaoh of Egypt to unite the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BCE, and he created the first Egyptian Dynasty. Because of him everybody in Egypt could use the entirety of the Nile (irrigation, nation building projects)
Egyptians invaders from a foreign land. Came from Mesopotamia region during the second intermediate period during 1786 BCE. They were able to invade Egypt easily because it was weakened by the shift of power from pharaoh to nobles. They stayed there for 200 years and introduced Bronze and chariots to the Egyptians. The Hyksos were defeated when the Egyptians united together (created a good army, and a more centralized government) under the leadership of Ahmose, which brought in the age of the New Kingdom in Egypt in 1560 BCE.
The temple of Karnak was known as the most select places by ancient Egyptians. It is a city of temples built over 2,000 years and dedicated to the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. Construction began around 2055 BCE to around 100 AD. Largest religious building ever constructed.
The disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology. During Amenhotep IV reign, from 1375-1360 BCE, he established a monotheistic religion that worshipped Aton as the only deity (Expressed as deity of righteousness and purism) The worship of Aton began around 857 BCE. The monotheistic religion began when Akhenaton noticed that people stopped being ethical and were trying to cheat the scales of death in the Cult of Osiris religion. After his death the people worshipped the old faith. the worship of Aton what the first monotheistic religion in Egypt.
Reign from 1375-1360BCE. Took away polytheism and introduced monotheism and the deity that was center of religion was Aton. Therefore he changed his name to Akhenaton meaning "Aton is satisfied." Everybody worships pharaoh then the pharaoh worships Aton.
A writing material for the ancient Egyptians to write on. They were made from papyrus reeds found along the Nile, they were woven together to make a scroll. The dry climate of Egypt made it possible for papyri to endure. Papyrus was easy to make and the Egyptians were able to use ink on them, while Mesopotamia had to care on stone tablets. It was the first form of paper ever made. (cheap, portable, durable, does not shatter or break, easy for business transactions)
The son of David and the third king of the united tribes of Israel and gained the throne around 973-933 BCE. Solomon finishes the construction of Jerusalem with the Temple of Jerusalem, also called Solomon's temple.Held the Ark of the Covenant, which held the Ten Commandments Moses received from God.
This revolution occurred between 750-550 BCE. Mainly had to do with prophets (preachers) writing down the religious teachings of the Hebrews. It was during this time when the prophets became strict with monotheism and making people believe the YHWH was the only god there is. During this time YHWH became purely good, righteous, and was in control of the whole world not just the hebrews. Taught people to be more ethical towards each other and put less emphasis on sacrifices and prayers because YHWH was all about ethics.
The recognition of the existence of many gods, but with the consistent worship of only one deity. Was used as a transition between polytheism and monotheism for the Hebrews because they used to worship many gods. Moses was the first to force a monotheistic way because when the jews was stuck in the desert he says god was punishing them for not accepting god as the only god and by if they do accept they will be put in gods favor.
They were living in slavery in Egypt, then they lived in present day around Syria. They were nomadic tribal people and they spoke the language that is native to the region. They had a tribal patriarch named Abraham.