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23 terms

Chapter 2 Vocab

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Atom
Smallest unit of matter, found of the periodic table
Element
Make of only 1 kind of atom, found of the periodic table
Compound
2 or more atoms joined in a chemical bond, bond can be ionic (metal/nonmetal) or covalent (nonmentals)
Molecule
2 or more atoms joined by SHARING electrons (covalent bond)
Ion
an atom (or element) with a FULL charge (covalent compounds DO NOT form ions)
Cohesion
attraction between substances (molecule, atom, etc) of the SAME kind. Ex: water attracts other water molecules. Also gives rise to surface tension
Adhesion
attraction between substances of DIFFERENT kinds
Ex: water is attracted to the walls of a tube (this gives rise to capillary action)
Solution
mixture where 2 or more substances are EVENLY mixed Ex: salt water, brass (Zn + Cu; don't have to be liquid)
Acid
pH of 0-6.9999999; abundance of H+ ions
Base
pH above 7; abundance of OH- ions
Carbohydrate
made of C, H, and O in a rough 1:2:1 ratio Ex: C6H12O6, or C12H22O11
Monosaccharide
monomer (what something is made of) of a carbohydrate
Lipid
made of C, H, and O like carb, except lots of C and H, not much O Ex: Cholesterol, C27H46O
Fatty Acid
Monomer of a lipid
Protein
building blocks of cells; made of C, H, O, N and sometimes P or S
Amino Acid
monomer of proteins; only 20 of them, all living orgs use the same ones (except weird ones in bottom of ocean)
Nucleic Acid
Long of molecules, what DNA is made of
Nucleotide
monomer of Nucleic Acids; made of phosphate group, sugar and Nitrogen base
ATP
the energy storing molecule in your body
Activation Energy
energy needed to start a chemical reaction...all reactions need activation energy (some more than others)
Enzyme
substances that decrease the activation energy to speed up chemical reactions in the body
Substrate
the substance the enzyme acts on
Active Site
location on the enzyme that the substrate will bind to so a chemical reaction can happen