Chapters 7, 12 definations

Terms in this set (...)

direct taxes
taxes on income, capital gains or wealth, et cetera... that tend to be progressive
the activity of transporting and selling goods to a store or a consumer
the extraction of minerals from the ground, and also the taking of money from the people
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy
indirect taxes
Taxes that increase a business firm's costs of production and, therefore, the prices charged to consumers. Examples are sales, excise, and property taxes.
night watchman state
where the government's responsibilities are so minimal they cannot be reduced much further without becoming a form of anarchy. The government's responsibilities are limited to protecting individuals from coercion, fraud and theft, to requiring reparation to victims
opportunity costs
cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, An International organization that helps different governments to collaborate in order to tackled economic, social and governance challenges of the globalized economy
in equity theory, the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization
police state
a country in which the government has total control over people and uses secret police to find and punish people who rebel or protest
policy goods
political goods that pertain to welfare, security, fairness, and liberty
political goods and values
a) criteria that sets standards on whether a certain outcome is good or bad b) individual differences in values or goals will affect how people evaluate political outcomes; politicians and citizens often disagree over these
process goods
a) participation, compliance & procedural justice; also includes effectiveness & efficiency b) examples are democratic procedures and various rights of due process
public policies
all of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved
The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institutions.
regulatory state
a) evolved in all advanced modern societies in response to the growing complexity of modern life, along with welfare state b) the government's control over its nation's economy, etc. for the welfare of its citizens
symbolic outputs
political speeches, holidays, rites, public monuments, and statues.
-used to build community and celebrate exemplary conduct
system goods
political goods that pertain to a stable and transparent environment and allow for maintenance and adaption
trade off
alternatives that must be given up when one is chosen over another
welfare state
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
a) a form of government where engineers, scientists and other technical experts are in charge of decision making in each of their fields b) suppresses participation and promotes economic growth; ex. Syria, Egypt
Assembly of experts
this organization is a manifestation of the hold that Islam has on Iran. It is chaired by clerics with the equivalent of a masters degree in religion; A.R.E. reserves the right to dismiss a leader if he is incapable of filling his duties which are implied to be religious in context
a paramilitary volunteer militia established in 1979 by order of the Islamic Revolution's leader Khomeini; consists of young Iranians who've volunteered, often in exchange for official benefits
council of guardians
the upper chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Twelve individuals who serve six-year terms: six lawyers, nominated by the chief justice and approved by the Majlis, and six clerics appointed by the supreme leader. The Council can review all Majlis legislation.
Shirin Ebadi
first Iranian and first Muslim woman to win Nobel Peace Prize. This was for her years of legal work advocating political activists, religious, ethnic minorities women and children.
expediency council
administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader. It's supposed to resolve conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians. It's also a consultative council to the Supreme Leader
Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
President of Iran from 1989 to 1997; now he is Chairman of various councils, and tried in vain to gain a third Presidential term in 2005. Centrist, pragmatic conservative, free market; credited with much of Iran's reconstruction after the Iran-Iraq war.
people that thought they could restore Islam to its former golden age (they saw the U.S. power over them as an extension of the cruelty of Christians during the Crusades)
Ali Khamenei
A midlevel cleric who was given the title of supreme leader after Khomeini's death. He lacks the charisma and religious authority that Khomeini had
Mohammed Khatami
Reformer who served as the fifth President of Iran from August 2, 1997 to August 3, 2005. Recently withdrew as candidate for upcoming presidential election.
Ruhollah Khomeini
"Ayatollah" was an Iranian religious leader and scholar, politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the late Shah of Iran. Following the revolution and a national referendum, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, until his death.
Person or thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others.
Iran's unicameral parliament, consisting of 290 elected representatives
Mohammed Mossadegh
Nationalist prime minister of Iran who wished to nationalize the oil in Iran. Because of western cooperation pressure the CIA joined forces with conservative Iranian military leaders to engineer a coup that drove this man from office. They replaced him with Mohammed Reze Pahlevi, the young Shah of Iran. He acted as a pawn for the United States for the next 25 years.
multiple power centers
revolutionary-created institutions that overlap with, or supplement, traditional state institutions
Mohammed-Reza Shah Pahlavi
Iran's ruler that favored the West. close ties with the US. Used oil 4 to build wealth. redistributed land to peasants. Gave women more rights. gave Iran's oil industry to Western control.
parastatal foundations
a government-owned corporation to compensate for the lack of private economic development or to ensure complete and equitable service to the whole country (can be anything from a national airline or a railroad to a postal system or manufacturing and marketing operations)
Pasdaran (Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps)
Persian term for guards, used to refer to the army of Revolutionary Guards formed during Iran's Islamic Revolution.
rentier states
- 50% of governmental budget comes from non state revenues (such as oil)
- Mineral abundant countries more prone to authoritarian regimes, economic/political problems, corruption and income inequality.
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (See also Shi'ites.) (p. 225)
government run by religious leaders
twelver shiism
a belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion
tudeh party
an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddeq's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and his term as prime minister. Its influence waned in the crackdown that followed the 1953 coup against Mosaddeq The party still exists, but is much weaker as a result of the banning of the party and mass arrests by the Islamic Republic in 1982 and the executions of political prisoners in 1988.
Triadic exchanges "do it like that". caregiver tells the child what to say and child repeats it to someone else.
velayat-e faqih
Belief that the state should be overseen by those familiar with Islamic theory and law- ie the upper Shia elite
a high-ranking Shiite religious leader who is regarded as an authority on religious law and its interpretation and who has political power as well
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
supreme leader
The country's most powerful political figure, who has the authority to overrule or dismiss the president, appoints members of the Guardian Council, and has personal representatives in the army, universities, etc.
supreme national security council
Organization responsible for Iran's intelligence, military, security and strategic policies
mahmud ahmadi-nejad
President of Iran