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Direct democracy

a form of government in which ordinary citizens have the power to govern


A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting


A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land


the lords castle and land around it


a series of wars fought by christians to control the holy land


traveled for french and founded st lawrence river


instrument that helped sailors determine their latitude while at sea.


first to sail the pacific


time period with a great bust of learning and art


completed the journey to the gulf of mexico. named louisianna

middle ages

a period where invasions and war were common.


wanted to win riches and glory. went to mexico and tried to conquer the Aztecs


first to explore north america


reached the southern tip of africa. paid by prince henry


people who have styled somewhere else but are still uder the rule of their king

turning point

moment in history that makes a decisive chang


claimed the pacific ocean for spain crossed isthmus of panama


sailed on half moon into NY


sail around the world

columbian exchange

global echange of goods and ideas

northwest passage

a waterway through or around north america

protestant reformation

a movement of protest against the catholic church. led by martin luthur

New france

first permanent french settlement


founded first permanent french settlement

new netherlands

dutch colonies around the area of new york. Dutch merchants had a good business sense.


an agreement between nations to aid and protect one another


first english colony. john whitewent back for supplies and when he returned everyone was gone


a legal document giving certain rights to a person or company


colony in virginia. John Smith helped save this colony. set up rules and forced colonists to work for their food.

representative government

voters elect representatives to make laws for them


representatives to the HOB

house of burgesses

and assembly of representatives

Magna carta

said the king could not raise taxes without consulting with parliament


british congress

established church

the chosen religion


mistreatment of certain people because of their beliefs


a group of separatist who let england for religious freedom


new settlement for the pilgrims

mayflower compact

framework of government for the pilgrims


pilgrims brgan as a celebration of their harvest


religious group who did not want to separate from the church but form a more reformed version.

general court

massachusetts government male church members elect representatives.

fundamental orders

a plan of government for connecticut limited government powers.

religious tolerance

freedom to follow your religion

roger williams

settled rhode island.
believed in religious freedom
government should have limited power and we should pay indians for their land.

Anne hutchinson

Puritan who spoke against the massachussets government and screwed herself when she said she spoke to god


holy day of rest


led fight against settlers in new england chief of wannapog

proprietary colony

when the king gives land to one or more people in return for a yearly payment

Royal colony

colony that is under the strict control of the english crown


owner of huge estates


A religious group that believe all people are equal and are basically good. They feel that violence is always wrong, and refused to carry guns or fight. They also believe in solving all problems peacefully.

william penn

founded pennsylvania. the holy experiment model of religious freedom

cash crop

crops sold for money

berkely and carteret

split up NJ

peter stuyevesant

governor of new netherlands; harsh ruler with heavy taxes. had to surrender NY

Mason Dixon Line

divides the middle and southern colonies

Act of toleration

law that provided religious freedom for all christians

Bacon's rebellion

attacked because they were upset about the land agreement with the indians.


people who owe money they can't pay back

slave sodes

treated slaves not as humans

lord baltimore

proprietor of maryland

James ogelthorpe

founded georgia

middle passage

the passage of slave trading ships west across the atlantic ocean


a nation becomes strong by keeping strict control over it's trade; economic theory


goods sent to markets outside a country


goods brought into a country

navigation act

regulated trade between england and the colonies

triangular trade

a three way trade involving slaves and other goods

indentured servant

someone who had there trip to the colonies paid in return for seven years of service

Great awakening

a religious movement that swept through the colonies


someone who works for someone to learn their skills

French and indian war

Fighting over ohio river valley

Fort Duquesne

French built this fort just where washington wanted to build one

fort necessity

used as a makeshift fort by washinton during the F@I war

Albany plan

Plan to develop one government for the colonies

plains of abraham

a cliff of of the city of quebec

Treaty of paris

End of french and indian war

Pontiacs war

attack on british troops at fort detroit by the indians

proclamation of 1763

Drew the imaginary line forbidding the colonists to settle west of the appalachians

stamp act

a tax on all legal documents and other papers


a formal written request


to refuse to buy something



boston massacre

five colonists killed while protesting

committee of correspondence

a group of people who wrote letters to the other colonies to inform them about the things the lobsterbacks were doing

Writs of assistance

legal documents that allowed officer to inspect and search houses and ships without a reason

townshend act

taxed glass paint lead and tea

tea act

allowed the east india company to sell to the colonists so lower tax on englands tea.

boston tea party

Set up by sam adams and sons of liberty. demanded the sips to leave the harbor and when they didn't they dumped the tea into boston harbor

intolerable acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

quebec act

gave more freedoms to canada and pissed off the colonies

1st continental congress

meeting colonial leaders in philadelphia; only georgia did not attend


an army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency


men prepared to fight at a minute's notice

Battle of lexington ad concord

caused the war against the colonies and england "the shot heard around the world"

olive branch petition

colonists sent this to the king to declare loyalty but asking him to repeal intolerable acts

continental army

set up by second continental congress. made GW the commander.

Green mountain boys

a band of vermonters led by ethan allen attacked fort ticonderoga to get cannons they could use


colonists who favored war against britian

sons of liberty

group of angry colonists who protested british policies

bunker hill

the bloodiest battle fought on breeds hill


colonists who remain loyal to britian

fort ticonderoga

captured by GMB without a fight


troops on horseback


keeping everything from entering another country


troops for hire

common sense

pamphlet by thomas paine telling the colonists it was OK to want to be independent


soldier who fights for pay


a person who betrays his or her country


an introduction

natural rights

rights that belong to all people from birth

THomas jefferson

helped write the declaration of independence president of second continental congress

R.H. Lee

wrote a resolution in favor of independence


a military blockade that forces another to surrender








harsh and unjust government


give up

battle of LI

1400 americans killed in this battle

battle of trenton

GW attacked on christams morning to surprise the drunk british

battle of saratoga

turning point in the war cause france to help us

burgoynes plan

wanted howe to get control of the hudson river area

battle of princeton

GW lit fires to attract cornwallis

valley forge

long cold winter here for washington and his army

nathan hale

spy for washington

Von Steuben

trained washingtons men at valley forge

handy betsy

women blacksmith

molly pitcher

carried water to the soldiers in the battle

john paul jones

first luitennant commissioned to the navy

deborah sampson

dressed up as a man but it was discovered "he" was a women when she was injured

battle of cow pens

divided soldie


hit and run tactic


whee cornwallis was forced to surrender




soldiers for germany

william prescot

led troops in bunker hill

ethan allen

head of green mountain boys


wanted to find a shorter to asia but landed on novascotia and claimed it.


discovered iceland and greenland

prince henry

started a sailing school. goal was to find a water route to asia. paid others to go around africa

vasco de gama

sailed for prince henry. went around cape of good hope and opened trade routes to asia.

amerigo vespucci

sailed along norther coast of south america. america was named after him


took over the incas

ponce de león

search for fountain of youth. didn't find it


brought home fools gold

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