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147 terms

SS midterms

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Direct democracy
a form of government in which ordinary citizens have the power to govern
republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
manor
the lords castle and land around it
crusades
a series of wars fought by christians to control the holy land
cartier
traveled for french and founded st lawrence river
astolabe
instrument that helped sailors determine their latitude while at sea.
magellan
first to sail the pacific
renaissance
time period with a great bust of learning and art
lasalle
completed the journey to the gulf of mexico. named louisianna
middle ages
a period where invasions and war were common.
cortez
wanted to win riches and glory. went to mexico and tried to conquer the Aztecs
Vikings
first to explore north america
dias
reached the southern tip of africa. paid by prince henry
colony
people who have styled somewhere else but are still uder the rule of their king
turning point
moment in history that makes a decisive chang
balboa
claimed the pacific ocean for spain crossed isthmus of panama
hudson
sailed on half moon into NY
circumnavigate
sail around the world
columbian exchange
global echange of goods and ideas
northwest passage
a waterway through or around north america
protestant reformation
a movement of protest against the catholic church. led by martin luthur
New france
first permanent french settlement
champlain
founded first permanent french settlement
new netherlands
dutch colonies around the area of new york. Dutch merchants had a good business sense.
alliance
an agreement between nations to aid and protect one another
roanoke
first english colony. john whitewent back for supplies and when he returned everyone was gone
charter
a legal document giving certain rights to a person or company
jamestown
colony in virginia. John Smith helped save this colony. set up rules and forced colonists to work for their food.
representative government
voters elect representatives to make laws for them
Burgesses
representatives to the HOB
house of burgesses
and assembly of representatives
Magna carta
said the king could not raise taxes without consulting with parliament
parliament
british congress
established church
the chosen religion
persecution
mistreatment of certain people because of their beliefs
pilgrim
a group of separatist who let england for religious freedom
plymouth
new settlement for the pilgrims
mayflower compact
framework of government for the pilgrims
thanksgiving
pilgrims brgan as a celebration of their harvest
Puritans
religious group who did not want to separate from the church but form a more reformed version.
general court
massachusetts government male church members elect representatives.
fundamental orders
a plan of government for connecticut limited government powers.
religious tolerance
freedom to follow your religion
roger williams
settled rhode island.
believed in religious freedom
government should have limited power and we should pay indians for their land.
Anne hutchinson
Puritan who spoke against the massachussets government and screwed herself when she said she spoke to god
sabbath
holy day of rest
metacom
led fight against settlers in new england chief of wannapog
proprietary colony
when the king gives land to one or more people in return for a yearly payment
Royal colony
colony that is under the strict control of the english crown
patroon
owner of huge estates
quaker
A religious group that believe all people are equal and are basically good. They feel that violence is always wrong, and refused to carry guns or fight. They also believe in solving all problems peacefully.
william penn
founded pennsylvania. the holy experiment model of religious freedom
cash crop
crops sold for money
berkely and carteret
split up NJ
peter stuyevesant
governor of new netherlands; harsh ruler with heavy taxes. had to surrender NY
Mason Dixon Line
divides the middle and southern colonies
Act of toleration
law that provided religious freedom for all christians
Bacon's rebellion
attacked because they were upset about the land agreement with the indians.
debtor
people who owe money they can't pay back
slave sodes
treated slaves not as humans
lord baltimore
proprietor of maryland
James ogelthorpe
founded georgia
middle passage
the passage of slave trading ships west across the atlantic ocean
mercantiliam
a nation becomes strong by keeping strict control over it's trade; economic theory
export
goods sent to markets outside a country
import
goods brought into a country
navigation act
regulated trade between england and the colonies
triangular trade
a three way trade involving slaves and other goods
indentured servant
someone who had there trip to the colonies paid in return for seven years of service
Great awakening
a religious movement that swept through the colonies
apprentice
someone who works for someone to learn their skills
French and indian war
Fighting over ohio river valley
Fort Duquesne
French built this fort just where washington wanted to build one
fort necessity
used as a makeshift fort by washinton during the F@I war
Albany plan
Plan to develop one government for the colonies
plains of abraham
a cliff of of the city of quebec
Treaty of paris
End of french and indian war
Pontiacs war
attack on british troops at fort detroit by the indians
proclamation of 1763
Drew the imaginary line forbidding the colonists to settle west of the appalachians
stamp act
a tax on all legal documents and other papers
petition
a formal written request
boycott
to refuse to buy something
repeal
cancel
boston massacre
five colonists killed while protesting
committee of correspondence
a group of people who wrote letters to the other colonies to inform them about the things the lobsterbacks were doing
Writs of assistance
legal documents that allowed officer to inspect and search houses and ships without a reason
townshend act
taxed glass paint lead and tea
tea act
allowed the east india company to sell to the colonists so lower tax on englands tea.
boston tea party
Set up by sam adams and sons of liberty. demanded the sips to leave the harbor and when they didn't they dumped the tea into boston harbor
intolerable acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
quebec act
gave more freedoms to canada and pissed off the colonies
1st continental congress
meeting colonial leaders in philadelphia; only georgia did not attend
Militia
an army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
minutemen
men prepared to fight at a minute's notice
Battle of lexington ad concord
caused the war against the colonies and england "the shot heard around the world"
olive branch petition
colonists sent this to the king to declare loyalty but asking him to repeal intolerable acts
continental army
set up by second continental congress. made GW the commander.
Green mountain boys
a band of vermonters led by ethan allen attacked fort ticonderoga to get cannons they could use
patriots
colonists who favored war against britian
sons of liberty
group of angry colonists who protested british policies
bunker hill
the bloodiest battle fought on breeds hill
loyalist
colonists who remain loyal to britian
fort ticonderoga
captured by GMB without a fight
cavalry
troops on horseback
blockade
keeping everything from entering another country
mercenaries
troops for hire
common sense
pamphlet by thomas paine telling the colonists it was OK to want to be independent
mercenary
soldier who fights for pay
traitior
a person who betrays his or her country
preamble
an introduction
natural rights
rights that belong to all people from birth
THomas jefferson
helped write the declaration of independence president of second continental congress
R.H. Lee
wrote a resolution in favor of independence
siege
a military blockade that forces another to surrender
dissolve
break
secure
protect
deriving
getting
tyranny
harsh and unjust government
relinquish
give up
battle of LI
1400 americans killed in this battle
battle of trenton
GW attacked on christams morning to surprise the drunk british
battle of saratoga
turning point in the war cause france to help us
burgoynes plan
wanted howe to get control of the hudson river area
battle of princeton
GW lit fires to attract cornwallis
valley forge
long cold winter here for washington and his army
nathan hale
spy for washington
Von Steuben
trained washingtons men at valley forge
handy betsy
women blacksmith
molly pitcher
carried water to the soldiers in the battle
john paul jones
first luitennant commissioned to the navy
deborah sampson
dressed up as a man but it was discovered "he" was a women when she was injured
battle of cow pens
divided soldie
guerrilla
hit and run tactic
yorktown
whee cornwallis was forced to surrender
ratified
approved
hessians
soldiers for germany
william prescot
led troops in bunker hill
ethan allen
head of green mountain boys
cabot
wanted to find a shorter to asia but landed on novascotia and claimed it.
ericson
discovered iceland and greenland
prince henry
started a sailing school. goal was to find a water route to asia. paid others to go around africa
vasco de gama
sailed for prince henry. went around cape of good hope and opened trade routes to asia.
amerigo vespucci
sailed along norther coast of south america. america was named after him
pissaro
took over the incas
ponce de león
search for fountain of youth. didn't find it
frobisher
brought home fools gold