Music Apprecaition study guide
Terms in this set (91)
* A line or tune in the music
* Collection of pitches that make a collective sound (succession of single pitches that we hear as a recognizable whole)
* We relate to the pitches of a melody in the same way we hear the words of a sentence—not singly but as an entire cohesive thought.
o Pitch is determined by frequency (number of vibrations per second) and is represented on a five line staff.
* How the melody moves up and down
* The contour of the melody is its overall shape as it turns upward or downward or remains static.
* You can visualize a melody in a line graph, resulting in an ascending or descending line
* Span of pitches
* Distance between the lowest and highest notes
* Span can be very narrow as in an easy children's song or very wide as in some melodies played on an instrument.
* Distance can be measured in the number of notes; we will describe range in approximate terms—narrow, medium, or wide.
* Distance between any two pitches (one note to next).
* Interval can be conjunct or disjunct.
* Melody that moves in small connected intervals
* Notes are next to each other and it sounds smooth
* Notes that are not next to each other, further apart
* There is a bigger jump between notes; notes jump all over.
*It is possible for a piece to start out as conjunct and end as disjunct or vice versa.
* Units that make up a melody are phrases
* A unit of meaning within a larger structure.
* In the English sentence, when you take a breath in a sentence, that pause is known as a phrase.
* Phrases end in resting places called cadences
* That resting place you take when you breath is the cadence
* Punctuates the music in the same way that a comma or period punctuates a sentence.
* The cadence may be inconclusive, leaving you with the impression that more is to come, or it may sound final, giving you a sense that the melody has reached the end—the cadence is where a singer or instrumentalist pauses to draw a breath
* Melody may be accompanied by a secondary melody
* More complex music can feature several simultaneous melodies. Sometimes the relative importance of one over the other is clear, and the added tune is called the countermelody.
* Two songs that are unrelated that work out at the same time—more than one melody against each other.
* How you characterize musical sound
* The degree of highness or lowness of a tone.
* Pitch depends on the length or size of a vibrating object
* For example, a short string vibrates faster than a long string which is why the violin sounds higher than a cello
* The number of vibrations per second.
* Higher frequency= high pitch and vice versa
* We represent each pitch with a symbol called a note.
* Note tells the pitch, duration, frequency etc. based off of where it is on the five line staff
* Five parallel lines, notes are written on it
* A set of five horizontal lines and four spaces that each represents a different musical pitch.
* Length of time the note/pitch lasts (how long)
* Loudness or softness of the pitch (how loud)
* Also known as timbre, distinct quality
* This quality distinguishes voices from instruments, trumpet from clarinet
* Same as tone color
* The character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity
* What makes a particular musical sound different from another
o The difference between playing the same note on a guitar and a piano at the same loudness.
* What moves the music forward in time; What makes music interesting
* Each individual note has a length, or duration—some long and some short.
* Basic unit of rhythm, regular pulse that divides time in equal segments
* Some beats are stronger that others and we perceive these as accented beats.
* How the beats occur in rhythm, the organizing patterns are meters, which marked off in measures
* In much of western music, strong beats occur at regular intervals—every other beat, every third beat, every fourth, and so on—and this we hear groupings of two, three or four. These organizational patterns are called meters, and in notation are marked off in measures.
* Organizes the flow of rhythm in music.
* Equivalent to the English term "bar ", signifying the smallest metrical divisions of a composition, containing a fixed number of beats , marked off by vertical lines on the staff.
* Meters are marked off in measures and are designated with regular vertical lines through the staff.
* First accented beat of each pattern
* Refers to the downward stroke of a conductor's hand.
o One, two, one, two (one is always down)
* Beat is divided into two (ONE-and, two-and, or ONE-and, two-and, three-and)
* When the beat is divided into three rather than two
* Most common compound meter is sextuple meter (compound duple) which has six beats to the measure, or two main beats that each divides into three (ONE- and-a, TWO-and-a)
* A weak beat, in between the stronger beats
* Any of the normally unaccented beats in a bar, such as the second and fourth beats in a bar of four-four time. They are stressed in most rock and some jazz and dance music.
* Deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accents
* Accent shifted to a weak beat or an offbeat (popular in jazz).
* More simply, syncopation is a general term for "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm": a "placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur.
* The simultaneous use of rhythmic patterns that conflict with the underlying beats, such as "two against three" or "three against four"
o In a piano piece, the left hand might play two note to a beat, while the right hand plays three notes to the same beat
o Very popular in drum ensembles in Ghana and Uganda.
* The simultaneous combination of contrasting rhythms in a musical composition.
* When the music moves without any strong sense of beat or meter (the case in the chants of the early Christian Church)
* The pulse is veiled or weak, with the music moving in a floating rhythm that typifies certain non-western styles.
* Some beats are more accented than others
* Some beats are more stronger than others meaning they are emphasized more.
* Accent mark, which means to play louder or do something else with note.
* Most basic pattern, which alternates a strong downbeat with a weak beat: ONE two, ONE two or if you marched it LEFT right LEFT right.
* Three beats to a measure, one strong beat and two weak beats: ONE two three
o Associated with the waltz and the minuet.
* Contains four beats to the measure, with a primary accent on the first beat and a secondary accent on the third. Although it is sometimes difficult to distinguish dip and quadruple meter, quadruple meter usually has a broader feeling.
o ONE two THREE four
* Vertically (makes the music more interesting and adds to the melody)
* Simultaneous combo of sounds, how notes sound together
* Harmony determines the relationship of intervals and chords. (Intervals-the distance between any two notes can occur successively or simultaneously; distance between any two notes).
* Harmony describes a piece's chord and the progression from one chord to the next. It is the progression of harmony in a musical work that creates a feeling of order and unity.
* Harmony is the vertical aspects of music, how pitches sound together.
* Simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches
o 3 or more notes sounded together.
* Chords are built from a particular scale, or sequence of pitches.
* Most common chord, three alternate pitches of a scale
* 3 notes with different pitches, it's a 3 pitch scale (do, mi, sol)
* Collection of pitches that are ordered in ascending or descending order
* The intervals from which chords and melodies are built are chosen from a particular collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order known as the scale.
o Do re mi fa so la ti do (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 =octave- interval spanning 8 notes)
* The central pitch around which a melody and its harmonies are built
* The first note of a scale, do, is considered the tonic and serves as a home base around which the others revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate. Key note
* The tonic, or tonic pitch, in music is what we refer to as the beginning and ending note of the diatonic scale that is used to compose a piece of music
* The principle of organization around a central note, the tonic
* The scale chosen as the basis of a piece determines the identity of the tonic and the key of the piece
* Notes that give off tension (conflict), sound unstable
* A combination of note that sounds unstable, sometimes harsh and in need of resolution
* Introduces conflict into music in the same way that suspense creates tension in drama.
* Occurs with a resolution of dissonance producing a stable or restful sound.
* Agreeable sounding combo of notes that provides a sense of relaxation and fulfillment. Gives off release.
* Interval spanning eight notes of the scale
* Pitches are named using the first seven letters of the alphabet (A through G), which start over again when you reach an octave.
* In Asian cultures, harmony is simple, consisting of a single sustained pitch called a drone against which melodic rhythmic complexities unfold (bagpipe might play one or more accompanying drones to a lively dance tune).
* Two half steps make a whole step, octave divided into 12 half steps
* In Western music, octave is divided into twelve equal semitones or half steps
* Intervals that are smaller than half steps
* Some non-Western music features these where you can hear "bent" or inflected pitches in Indian sitar music and microtonal sliding between pitches in Islamic chant.
* Made up of all twelve half steps
* Pick a note on the piano and go higher (right) or lower (left) and play ever note in order.
* (#), Symbol that raises a pitch by half a step
* Go next line higher, go half step higher
* (b), lowers a pitch by a half step
* Lower the note by a half a step, go next line lower
* Music is firmly rooted in the notes of a key
* Music in a major or minor key focuses on the seven notes of the respective scale and is considered diatonic
* If I were to play in the key of C, the rest of notes might be a, b, c, d but none of the notes I play will be a flat or sharp
* Some compositions introduce other notes that are foreign to the scale, drawing from the full gamut of the twelve half steps that span the octave.
* Adds color, uses sharps/ blue notes, etc.
* A 5 note scale
* Amazing grace is a pentatonic scale
* Can vary, easiest to improvise in, and is used in a lot of Asian/ African countries.
* One line of music (sing all by myself or in unison)
* Single voice (voice refers to an individual part or line, even in instrumental music)
* Here the melody is heard without any harmonic accompaniment or other melodic lines; its you singing in the shower.
* It may be accompanied by rhythm and percussion instruments that embellish it, but interest is focused on the single melodic line rather than on any harmony.
* Any time you hear one person or a whole bunch of people sing in unison—can all be in different octaves but if unison its monophonic
* Multiple versions of melody heard simultaneously
* Several musicians sing or play the same musical line, but each one varies some element—maybe a pitch or a rhythm—so that they're out of sync with each other.
* Melody and an accompaniment—playing guitar and singing.
* Two or more different melodic lines combined that are both equally important, based on counterpoint
* 2 or more different melodic lines combined, thus distributing melodic interest among all the parts.
* Polyphonic texture is based on counterpoint, that is, one musical line against another.
* One melody isn't an accompaniment of the other—play a song and then you start another song 5 seconds later while still playing the first song.
* Most commonly heard texture
* Single line or melody and is accompanied by strings, etc.
* Single voice takes over the melodic interest, while the accompanying lines are subordinate
* Normally, the accompanying lines become blocks of harmony, the chords that support, color, and enhance the principal line.
* Homophonic texture is heard when a pianist plays a melody in the right hand while the left sounds the chords or when a singer or violinist carries the tune against a harmonic accompaniment on the piano.
* Homophonic texture, then, is based on harmony just as polyphonic texture is based on counterpoint.
* Homophony where all the voices move in the same rhythm
* A kind of homophony where all the voices or lines move together in the same rhythm
* When there is a text, all words are clearly sounded together. Like homophony, it is based on harmony moving in synchronization with a melody.
* Organizing principle in music; It's basic elements are repetition, contrast and variation
* Refers to a work's structure or shape, the way the elements of a composition have been combined by the composer to make it understandable to the listener.
* Same melody is repeated with each stanza of the text, as for a folk song or carol
* In this structure, while the music within a stanza offers some contrast, its repetition binds the form together
* Same melody different words (think verses)
* There are no large repeated sections, melody changes
* Direct opposite of strophic form; no main section of the music or text is repeated
o There is a different melody throughout as well as words
* Has 2 parts, A part B part = AB
* Based on a statement and a departure, without a return to the opening section. (Verse and refrain)
* Has 3 parts, A - B - A
* Extends the idea of statement and departure by bringing back the first section.
Theme and Variation
* A is theme, A1 is first variation, A2 is second variation and so on = A A1 A2 A3 A4
* A section, with contrasting music: B is contrasting and C would be something completely different than B. Then you might return to B. - ABACABA
* Every other section has to be A
* Idea may be restated at a higher or lower pitch level
* Restates theme at a higher/lower pitch; music that is the same but moves to a higher or lower pitch
Theme; thematic development
* (Book) The introduction of a theme and its elaboration are the essence of musical thinking. This process of growth has its parallel in writing, when an idea, a topic sentence, is stated at the beginning of a paragraph and enlarged upon and developed by the author. Just as each sentence leads logically from one to the next, every musical idea takes up where the ones before left off and continues convincingly to the next. The expansion of a theme, achieved by varying its melody, rhythm, or harmony is considered thematic development
* Melodic idea in a large scale work that can be broken into smaller fragments, the expansion of a theme achieved by melody and rhythm is thematic development
Call and response
* Repetitive style involving a soloist and a group
* A signing leader is imitated or answered by a chorus of followers
* This is a typical singing style for spirituals and gospel music.
* Large scale compositions, like symphonies and sonatas,ew are divided into movements
* A complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work.
* Individual notes are bound together in a phrase, phrases within a theme, the themes within a section, the sections within a movement and the movements within the work as a whole.
* Separate section of a large music work.
* Tempo is the speed- steady beats sometimes underly the movement; whether these occur slowly or rapidly determine the temp or rate of peed of the music.
* Largo - broad (very slow)
* Andante - a walking pace,
* Moderato - moderate
* Allegro - fast (cheerful)
* Vivace - lively
* Presto - very fast
* (Don't know if we need to know but modifiers= molto-very, meno- less, poco- a little, and non troppo- not too much)
* Means to speed up; to perform with an increase in sped
* Dynamics refers to the loudness and softness
* Dynamics denote the volume (degree of loudness or softness) at which music is played; like tempo this can affect our emotional response
* Pianissimo (pp) - very soft, Piano (p) - soft, Mezzopiano (mp)- moderately soft, Mezzo Forte (mf) - moderately loud, Forte (f)- loud, Fortissimo (ff)- very loud
* A direction to change the dynamics either suddenly or gradually
* ( < ) goes soft to loud; growing louder
* A direction to change the dynamics either suddenly or gradually
* ( > ) goes loud to soft, also known as Diminuendo
* A wind instrument
* Plays with air, flute bagpipe
* String instrument, violin/guitar
* An instrument that is struck, bells/cymbals
* An instrument the whole of which vibrates to produce a sound when struck, shaken, or scraped such as a bell, gong, or rattle.
* Known as drums
* Drum that has a skin/ membrane stretched over it
* A fourth property of sound besides pitch, duration, and volume
* Accounts for the striking differences in the sound quality of musical instruments
* Its what makes a trumpet sound altogether different from a guitar or a clarinet
* Timber is influenced by a number of factors, such as the size, shape and proportions of the instrument, the material from which it is made, and the manner in which the vibration is produced. A string, for example, may be bowed, plucked or struck.
* The standard designations for vocal ranges from highest to lowest are soprano, alto, tenor and bass
* Soprano - the highest voice (women), Alto - the second highest (women), Tenor- second lowest (generally for men), Bass- lowest voice (men)
* Mechanisms that generate vibrations and launch them into the air
* Strings - also chordophones sounded by bowing and plucking (violin, guitar, viola), Woodwinds - also aerophones sounded with combo of air vibrating within a pipe that has fingerholes along its length (flute, saxophone, piccolo, oboe, bagpipe), Brass - also aerophones main instrument is the trumpet, cup shaped mouthpieces, Percussion - generate the excitement at the climax, (timpani, drums), Keyboard - played with keys (piano, organ)
Special string techniques
* String instruments can be played in many styles and can produce striking special effects
* Pizzicato: Plucked; created when a performer plucks the strings with a finger instead of using the bow.
* Tremolo: The rapid repition of a tone through a quick up and down movement of the bow, is associated with suspense and excitement; sounds mysterious
* Vibrato: a slight throbbing; is achieved by a rapid wrist and finger movement on the string that slightly alters the pitch. Slightly changes pitch and makes it sound lower
* Glissando: a finger on the left hand slides along the string while the right hand draws the bow gathering all the pitches under the left-hand finger in one swooping sound; slide up
* A fairly large body of singers who perform together; their music is usually sung in several voice parts. Many groups include both men and woman but choruses can also be restricted to women's or men's voices only
o Choir is a smaller chorus and is usually connected with a church or with performance of sacred music.
* Any performing body of divers instruments
o Can have gongs, xylophones, etc.
* In west, synonymous with an ensembles of strings couples with an assortment of woodwinds, brass, and percussion instruments (symphony orchestra)
* Symphony orchestra: varied in size and makeup through history but has always featured string instruments at its core.
o Strings near the front and percussion/ woodwinds near the back.
* Singing without any instrumental accompaniment
* Ensemble music for a group of two to about a dozen players with only one player to a part—as distinct from orchestral music, in which a single instrumental part may be performed by as many as eighteen players or more.
* The essential trait of chamber music is its intimacy
* Several of the standard chamber music ensembles consists of string players—the most famous being the string quarter (two violins, viola, and a cello). Others include duo sonata (soloist with piano).
John Phillip Sousa
* Otherwise known as the March king.
* Many of the marches performed by marching bands are credit to John Philip Sousa
* Well known Stars and Stripes Forever
* American bandmaster who achieved worldwide fame with his wind, or concert, band and the repertory marches he wrote for it.
* A generic name applied to a variety of ensembles, most of which rely on winds and percussion. There are many different types of bands:
o Wind Band: Concert band that was made famous by John Philip Sousa; forty to eighty or so players is an established institution in most secondary schools, colleges and universities. Many composers write new pieces for these bands because they are willing to play new compositions.
o Marching band: usually entertains at sports events and parades. Besides its core of winds and percussion, this group often features remnant from its military origins. (Has flags, drum majors, etc.)
o Jazz bands: includes reed sections made up of saxophones and an occasional clarinet, a brass section of trumpets and trombones and a rhythm section of percussion, piano, double bass, and electric guitar.
o Rock Bands: amplified guitars and maybe winds and brass
* Not all music is written down. Preservation of music without the aid of written notation is refereed to as oral transmission. Very popular in folk music
Women's voices and church music
* the group leader of an orchestra, concert band, or chorus.
* Conductors beat time in standard metric patterns to help the performers keep the same tempo using a baton.
o Emphasize the strong and weak beats of the measure.
* The conductor's role in interpreting the music for the group. He or she decisded the precise temp and the dynamics all the way through the piece.
* Conductors rehearse ensembles in practice sessions, helping the musicians learn their individual parts.
* Uses this to beat patterns to help performers keep the same tempo
Secular and Sacred Music
* Secular: for entertainment and other nonreligious activities
* Sacred: for religious functions
* Suggests something of the overall character of the work as well as its function. For example, song is a genre, as is a symphony (usually designating a four movement orchestral work).
* A way to identify music