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33 terms

Evolution Chapter 13 Biology

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evolution
a change of species over time
4.5 billion years
beginning of earth
Charles Darwin
is considered the father of modern evolutionary theory and conducted much research in the Galpagos
2 major ideas of Darwins book
Species change over time
changes in a species occur due to natural selection
Natural Selection
some organisms are more suited to their environment and have traits that help them survive and reproduce better than organisms without those traits
Name 5 things that give evidence of evolution
Fossil records, homologous and vestigial structures, comparative embryology and similarities and differences in DNA and proteins
Ways the age of fossils can be determined
by examining how deeply they are buried and the organisms around them and by using radioactive minerals
an example of vestigial structures
hind limbs of whales
an example of homologous structures
forelimbs of vertebrates (alligator, penguin, bat and human)
homologous structures
similar structures in organisms suggest that those organisms had a common ancestor
vestigial
structures that were once useful to an organism no longer serve a purpose - human appendix
embryological development
most vertebrate embryos look alike in the early stages of development and are similar to other organisms ( human embryos have gill pouch, coat of fine fur, short tail for a short time)
DNA and Protein Evidence
many organisms share some of the same DNA with organisms they are related to like the chimpanzee and humans and also a mouse
directional, disruptive and stabilizing selection
three patterns of natural selection
directional selection
one extreme is better suited tot he environment than others like peppered moth in England
Disruptive selection
both extremes are better suited to the environment than the average: Large and small beaks are best for getting food - not medium sized beaks.
stabilizing selection
the average is best suited tot he environment
Causes of evolution other than natural selection
changes in genes due to chance and reproductive isolation
convergent evolution
organisms without a common ancestor begin to look alike due to similar environmental pressures (sharks, penguins and dolphins has similar bodies
coevolution
two organisms evolve in response to changes in each other
punctuated equilibrium
evolution that occurs in jumps or bursts and pauses
Thomas Malthus
wrote that populations tend to grow as much as the environment tends to allow them and sustain them
Gradualism
a process of evolution in which speciation occurs slowly and gradually.
Similarities of structures
provide evidence that all vertebrates share a common ancestor
Reproductive isolation
keeps newly forming species from breeding with each other
Lyell's Principles of Geology
past events must be able to be explained in terms of processes that can be observed
Jean Baptiste Lamark
believed that physical features increase in size because of use or reduce in size because of disuse (incorrect)
Lamark's main idea that Darwin liked
species change according to their environment
Malthus
reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient space or food
Maltus main idea that Darwin liked
plants and animals - more than humans - could product more offspring than space or food
example of reproductive isolation
kaibab squirrel and abert squirrel
example of co evolution
moth with long tongue and flower with long neck for nectar
Antibiotic resistant bacteria
an example natural selection or evolution and bacteria. New bacteria cannot be killed by old antibiotics