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is considered the father of modern evolutionary theory and conducted much research in the Galpagos
2 major ideas of Darwins book
Species change over time
changes in a species occur due to natural selection
some organisms are more suited to their environment and have traits that help them survive and reproduce better than organisms without those traits
Name 5 things that give evidence of evolution
Fossil records, homologous and vestigial structures, comparative embryology and similarities and differences in DNA and proteins
Ways the age of fossils can be determined
by examining how deeply they are buried and the organisms around them and by using radioactive minerals
similar structures in organisms suggest that those organisms had a common ancestor
structures that were once useful to an organism no longer serve a purpose - human appendix
most vertebrate embryos look alike in the early stages of development and are similar to other organisms ( human embryos have gill pouch, coat of fine fur, short tail for a short time)
DNA and Protein Evidence
many organisms share some of the same DNA with organisms they are related to like the chimpanzee and humans and also a mouse
one extreme is better suited tot he environment than others like peppered moth in England
both extremes are better suited to the environment than the average: Large and small beaks are best for getting food - not medium sized beaks.
Causes of evolution other than natural selection
changes in genes due to chance and reproductive isolation
organisms without a common ancestor begin to look alike due to similar environmental pressures (sharks, penguins and dolphins has similar bodies
wrote that populations tend to grow as much as the environment tends to allow them and sustain them
Lyell's Principles of Geology
past events must be able to be explained in terms of processes that can be observed
Jean Baptiste Lamark
believed that physical features increase in size because of use or reduce in size because of disuse (incorrect)
reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient space or food
Maltus main idea that Darwin liked
plants and animals - more than humans - could product more offspring than space or food
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