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too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, and impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.

When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons:

most of the railroad barons built their railroads with government assistance.

During the Gilded Age

the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with land grants.

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in

Great Norther

James J. Hill

New York Central

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Central Pacific

Leland Standord

the Great Northerner.

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was

the movement of people to cities.

One by-product of the development of the railroads was

the railroad network.

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was

the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep their schedules to avoid wrecks.

The United States changed to standard time zones when

called pools.

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were

to avoid competition by dividing business in a particular area.

Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order

first came in the form of action by the Supreme Court.

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations

the Interstate Commerce Commission.

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was

that it represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was

the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States helped to build the nation into an industrial giant.

After the Civil War

increased competition.

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

vertical integration

Andrew Carnegie


John D. Rockefeller

interlocking directorate

J. Pierpont Morgan


Andrew Carnegie


John D. Rockefeller


J. Pierpont Morgan


James Duke

owed much to the inventive genius of Henry Bessemer.

The steel industry

by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as an interlocking directorate.

J.P. Morgan undermined competition

United States Steel.

America's first billion-dollar corporation was


The first major product of the oil industry was

the invention of the internal combustion engine.

The oil industry became a huge business with

employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, and using high-pressure sales methods.

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry:

associated godliness with riches encouraged many millionaires to help the poor.

The "gospel of wealth," which

the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to avoid corporate regulation by the states.

To help corporations

giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.

The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to

at first primarily used to curb the power of railroad corporations.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was

the South remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

During the age of industrialization

cheap labor.

The South's major attraction for potential investors was

tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted textile manufacturing to the "new South."

In the late nineteenth century

textile mills as the only steady jobs and wages available.

Many Southerners saw employment in the

need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was the


The group most affected by the new industrial age was

economical swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, and illness and accident.

Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following:

a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman."

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented

for economic necessity.

Most women works of the 1890s worked

lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist and company town.

A closed shop is least similar to

interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor corporations.

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century

a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s

National Labor Union

the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration

Knights of Labor

an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

American Federation of Labor

the National Labor Union won an eight-hour day for governing workers.

In its efforts on behalf of workers


One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was

that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when labor would own and operate businesses and industries.

The Knights of Labor believed

could be preserved from corrupt monopolies by strengthening the economical and political independence of the workers.

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions

its lack of class-consciousness.`

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was

the American Federation of Labor.

The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was

the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless, the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize

develop a more positive image with the public.

By 1900, organized labor in America had begun to

argues that these men built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.

The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly

class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because America has greater social mobility than Europe has.

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that

a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, and a political climate favoring business.

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion:

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