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too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, and impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.
When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons:
the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with land grants.
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in
the railroad network.
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep their schedules to avoid wrecks.
The United States changed to standard time zones when
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were
to avoid competition by dividing business in a particular area.
Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order
first came in the form of action by the Supreme Court.
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations
the Interstate Commerce Commission.
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was
that it represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was
the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States helped to build the nation into an industrial giant.
After the Civil War
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as an interlocking directorate.
J.P. Morgan undermined competition
employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, and using high-pressure sales methods.
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry:
associated godliness with riches encouraged many millionaires to help the poor.
The "gospel of wealth," which
the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to avoid corporate regulation by the states.
To help corporations
giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.
The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to
tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted textile manufacturing to the "new South."
In the late nineteenth century
need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was the
economical swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, and illness and accident.
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following:
a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman."
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented
interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor corporations.
Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century
the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
Knights of Labor
an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
American Federation of Labor
the National Labor Union won an eight-hour day for governing workers.
In its efforts on behalf of workers
that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when labor would own and operate businesses and industries.
The Knights of Labor believed
could be preserved from corrupt monopolies by strengthening the economical and political independence of the workers.
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions
the American Federation of Labor.
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was
the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless, the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize
argues that these men built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.
The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly
class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because America has greater social mobility than Europe has.
Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that
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