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68 terms

Intro to Corrections pt 2

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Diversion
the halting or suspension, before conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditioned on some form of counterperformance by the defendant
Counterperformance
the defendant's participation, in exchange for diversion, in treatment, counseling, or educational program aimed at changing his or her behavior
Victimless Crime
an offense committed against the social values and interests represented in and protected by the criminal law, and in which parties willingly participate
unconditional diversion
The termination of criminal processing at any point before adjudication with no threat of later prosecution. Treatment, counseling, and other services are offered and use is voluntary
conditional diversion
diversion in which charges are dismissed if the defendant satisfactorily completes treatment, counseling, or other programs ordered by the justice system
probation
The conditional release of a convicted offender into the community, under the supervision of a probation officer
recidivism
the repetition of criminal behavior; generally defined as rearrest.
working alliance
An effective relationship between a change agent and a client, with negotiated goals and a mutual willingness to compromise when necessary to meet the goals or to maintain a viable relationship
cognitive-behavioral treatment
a problem-focused intervention that emphasizes skill training
client-specific plan
a privately prepared presentence report that supplements the PSR prepared by the probation department
supervision
The second major role of probation officers, consisting of resource mediation, surveillance, and enforcement
revocation hearing
a due process hearing that must be conducted to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender removed from the community
revocation
the formal termination of an offender's conditional freedom
technical violation
a failure to comply with the conditions of probation
absconding
fleeing without permission of the jurisdiction in which the offender is required to stay
new offense violation
the arrest and prosecution for the commision of a new crime
intermediate sanctions
new punishment options developed to fill the gap between traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriousness of the crime
community corrections
a philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces (1) decentralization of authority, (2) citizen participation, (3) redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration is most appropriate, and (4) emphasis on rehab through community programs
front-end programs
punishment options for initial sentences more restrictive than traditional probation but less restrictive than jail or prison
back-end programs
sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentences
trap door programs
Emergency release options for special docket offenders, generall used to relieve prison crowding
new widening
increasing the number of offenders sentenced to a higher level of restriction. It results in sentencing offenders to more restrictive sanctions than their offense and characteristics warrant
Intensive supervision probation
control of offenders in the community under strict conditions, by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose caseload is generally limited to 30 offenders
drug court
a special court that is given responsibility to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regual probation but less severe than incarceration
fine
a financial penalty used as a criminal sanction
day fine
a financial penalty scaled both to the defendant's ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime.
community service
a sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with nonprofit or tax-supported agencies
day reporting center
a community correctional center to which an offender reports every day or several days of a week for supervision and treatment
remote-location monitoring
technologies, including gps devices and electronic monitoring, that probation and paroles officers use to monitor remotely the physical location of an offender
residential community center
a medium-security setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly, unaccompanied by staff, for work, educations or vocational programs, or treatment in the community
boot camp
a short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment
community corrections acts
state laws that give economic grants to local communities to establish community corrections goals and policies and to develop and operate community corrections programs
jails
locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction
total admission
the total number of people admitted to jail each year
average daily population
sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prison each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year
rabble management
control of people whose noncriminal behavior is offensive to their communities
first-generation jail
jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes. Inmate supervision is intermittent; staff must patrol the corridors to observe inmates in their cells
second-generation jail
jail where staff remain in secure control booth surrounded by inmate housing areas called pods and surveillance is remote
third-generation jail
a jail where inmates are house in small groups, pods, staffed 24 hours a day by specially trained officers. Officers interact with inmates to halp change behavior. Bars and metal doors are absent, reducing noise and dehumanization
fourth-generation jail
jail that incorporates natural light into the dayroom where staff work and inmates spend most of their day, and brings program services, staff, volunteers, and visitors to the housing unit
sexual victimization
All types of sexual activity, for example, oral, anal, or vaginal penetration; handjobs; touching of the inmates buttocks, thighs, penis, breasts, or vagina in a sexual way; abusive sexual contacts
rated capacity
the number of beds or inmates a state official assigns to a correctional facility
pay to stay jail
an alternative to serving time in a county jail. Offenders convicted of minor offenses are offered privileges for a fee from $75 to $127 per day
reentry
The transition offenders make from prison or jail to the community
privatization
a contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilities, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector
accreditation
process through which correctional facilities and agencies can measure themselves against nationally adopted standards and through which they can recieve formal recognition and accredited status
penitentiary
the earliest form of large-scale incarceration. It punished criminals by isolating them so that they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and reform
Pennsylvania system
the first historical phase of prison discipline, involving solitary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment; conceived by the american quakers in 1790 and implemented at the walnut street jail
auburn system
the second historical phase of prison discipline, implemented at New York's Auburn prison in 1815. It followed the Pennsylvania system and allowed inmates to work silently together during the day, but they were isolated at night. Eventually sleeping cells became congregate and restrictions against talking were removed
public accounts system
the earliest form of prison industry, in which the warden was responsible for purchasing materials and equipment and for overseeing the manufacture, marketing, and sale of prison-made items
contract system
a system of prison industry in which the prison advertised for bids for the employment of prisoners, whose labor was sold to the highest bidder
convict lease system
a system of prison industry in which a prison temporarily relinquished supervision of its prisoners to a lessee. The lessee either employed the prisoners within the institution or transported them to work elsehwere in the state
state use system
a system of prison industry that employs prisoners to manufacture products consumed by state governments and their agencies, departments, and institutions
public works system
a system of prison industry in which prisoners were employed in the construction of public buildings, roads, and parks
medical model
a philosophy of prisoner reform in which criminal behavior is regarded as a disease to be treated with appropriate therapy
external classification
interinstitutional placement of an inmate that determines an inmate's security level
internal classification
intrainstitutional placement that determines, through review of an inmate's background, assignment to housing units or cellblocks, work, and programming based on the inmate's risk, needs, and time to serve
classification
the process of subdividing the inmate population into meaningful categories to match offender needs with correctional resources
unit management system
a method of controlling prisoners in self-contained living areas and making inmates and staff accessible to each other
Federal Prison Industries
A federal, paid inmate work program and self-supporting corporation
UNICOR
the trade name of Federal Prison Industries. Provides such products as U.S. military uniforms, electronic cable assemblies, and modular furniture
principle of least eligibility
the requirement that prison conditions, including the delivery of health care, must be a step below those of the working class and people on welfare
operational capacity
the number of inmates that a facility's staff, existing programs, and services can accomodate
design capacity
the number of inmates that planners or architects inted for the facility
maximum or high security
a prison designed, organized, and staffed to confine the most dangerous offenders for long periods. It has a highly secure perimter, barred cells, and a high staff-to-inmate ratio. imposes strict controls on the movement of inmates and visitors, and it offers few programs, amenities, or priveleges
medium security prison
a prison that confines offenders considered less dangerous than those in maximum security, for both short and long periods. it places fewer controls on inmates and visitors freedom of movement than does the maximum security prison. has barred cells and a fortified perimeter.staff to inmate ratio is slightly lower and the privileges and amenities are slightly higher.
minimum security prison
a prison that confines the least dangerous offenders for both short and long periods. It allows as much freedom of movement and as many privileges and amenities as are consistent with the goals of the facility. it may have dormitory housing, and the staff to inmate ratio is low
open institution
a minimum security facility that has no fences or walls surrounding it