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the halting or suspension, before conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditioned on some form of counterperformance by the defendant


the defendant's participation, in exchange for diversion, in treatment, counseling, or educational program aimed at changing his or her behavior

Victimless Crime

an offense committed against the social values and interests represented in and protected by the criminal law, and in which parties willingly participate

unconditional diversion

The termination of criminal processing at any point before adjudication with no threat of later prosecution. Treatment, counseling, and other services are offered and use is voluntary

conditional diversion

diversion in which charges are dismissed if the defendant satisfactorily completes treatment, counseling, or other programs ordered by the justice system


The conditional release of a convicted offender into the community, under the supervision of a probation officer


the repetition of criminal behavior; generally defined as rearrest.

working alliance

An effective relationship between a change agent and a client, with negotiated goals and a mutual willingness to compromise when necessary to meet the goals or to maintain a viable relationship

cognitive-behavioral treatment

a problem-focused intervention that emphasizes skill training

client-specific plan

a privately prepared presentence report that supplements the PSR prepared by the probation department


The second major role of probation officers, consisting of resource mediation, surveillance, and enforcement

revocation hearing

a due process hearing that must be conducted to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender removed from the community


the formal termination of an offender's conditional freedom

technical violation

a failure to comply with the conditions of probation


fleeing without permission of the jurisdiction in which the offender is required to stay

new offense violation

the arrest and prosecution for the commision of a new crime

intermediate sanctions

new punishment options developed to fill the gap between traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriousness of the crime

community corrections

a philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces (1) decentralization of authority, (2) citizen participation, (3) redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration is most appropriate, and (4) emphasis on rehab through community programs

front-end programs

punishment options for initial sentences more restrictive than traditional probation but less restrictive than jail or prison

back-end programs

sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentences

trap door programs

Emergency release options for special docket offenders, generall used to relieve prison crowding

new widening

increasing the number of offenders sentenced to a higher level of restriction. It results in sentencing offenders to more restrictive sanctions than their offense and characteristics warrant

Intensive supervision probation

control of offenders in the community under strict conditions, by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose caseload is generally limited to 30 offenders

drug court

a special court that is given responsibility to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regual probation but less severe than incarceration


a financial penalty used as a criminal sanction

day fine

a financial penalty scaled both to the defendant's ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime.

community service

a sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with nonprofit or tax-supported agencies

day reporting center

a community correctional center to which an offender reports every day or several days of a week for supervision and treatment

remote-location monitoring

technologies, including gps devices and electronic monitoring, that probation and paroles officers use to monitor remotely the physical location of an offender

residential community center

a medium-security setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly, unaccompanied by staff, for work, educations or vocational programs, or treatment in the community

boot camp

a short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment

community corrections acts

state laws that give economic grants to local communities to establish community corrections goals and policies and to develop and operate community corrections programs


locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction

total admission

the total number of people admitted to jail each year

average daily population

sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prison each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year

rabble management

control of people whose noncriminal behavior is offensive to their communities

first-generation jail

jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes. Inmate supervision is intermittent; staff must patrol the corridors to observe inmates in their cells

second-generation jail

jail where staff remain in secure control booth surrounded by inmate housing areas called pods and surveillance is remote

third-generation jail

a jail where inmates are house in small groups, pods, staffed 24 hours a day by specially trained officers. Officers interact with inmates to halp change behavior. Bars and metal doors are absent, reducing noise and dehumanization

fourth-generation jail

jail that incorporates natural light into the dayroom where staff work and inmates spend most of their day, and brings program services, staff, volunteers, and visitors to the housing unit

sexual victimization

All types of sexual activity, for example, oral, anal, or vaginal penetration; handjobs; touching of the inmates buttocks, thighs, penis, breasts, or vagina in a sexual way; abusive sexual contacts

rated capacity

the number of beds or inmates a state official assigns to a correctional facility

pay to stay jail

an alternative to serving time in a county jail. Offenders convicted of minor offenses are offered privileges for a fee from $75 to $127 per day


The transition offenders make from prison or jail to the community


a contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilities, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector


process through which correctional facilities and agencies can measure themselves against nationally adopted standards and through which they can recieve formal recognition and accredited status


the earliest form of large-scale incarceration. It punished criminals by isolating them so that they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and reform

Pennsylvania system

the first historical phase of prison discipline, involving solitary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment; conceived by the american quakers in 1790 and implemented at the walnut street jail

auburn system

the second historical phase of prison discipline, implemented at New York's Auburn prison in 1815. It followed the Pennsylvania system and allowed inmates to work silently together during the day, but they were isolated at night. Eventually sleeping cells became congregate and restrictions against talking were removed

public accounts system

the earliest form of prison industry, in which the warden was responsible for purchasing materials and equipment and for overseeing the manufacture, marketing, and sale of prison-made items

contract system

a system of prison industry in which the prison advertised for bids for the employment of prisoners, whose labor was sold to the highest bidder

convict lease system

a system of prison industry in which a prison temporarily relinquished supervision of its prisoners to a lessee. The lessee either employed the prisoners within the institution or transported them to work elsehwere in the state

state use system

a system of prison industry that employs prisoners to manufacture products consumed by state governments and their agencies, departments, and institutions

public works system

a system of prison industry in which prisoners were employed in the construction of public buildings, roads, and parks

medical model

a philosophy of prisoner reform in which criminal behavior is regarded as a disease to be treated with appropriate therapy

external classification

interinstitutional placement of an inmate that determines an inmate's security level

internal classification

intrainstitutional placement that determines, through review of an inmate's background, assignment to housing units or cellblocks, work, and programming based on the inmate's risk, needs, and time to serve


the process of subdividing the inmate population into meaningful categories to match offender needs with correctional resources

unit management system

a method of controlling prisoners in self-contained living areas and making inmates and staff accessible to each other

Federal Prison Industries

A federal, paid inmate work program and self-supporting corporation


the trade name of Federal Prison Industries. Provides such products as U.S. military uniforms, electronic cable assemblies, and modular furniture

principle of least eligibility

the requirement that prison conditions, including the delivery of health care, must be a step below those of the working class and people on welfare

operational capacity

the number of inmates that a facility's staff, existing programs, and services can accomodate

design capacity

the number of inmates that planners or architects inted for the facility

maximum or high security

a prison designed, organized, and staffed to confine the most dangerous offenders for long periods. It has a highly secure perimter, barred cells, and a high staff-to-inmate ratio. imposes strict controls on the movement of inmates and visitors, and it offers few programs, amenities, or priveleges

medium security prison

a prison that confines offenders considered less dangerous than those in maximum security, for both short and long periods. it places fewer controls on inmates and visitors freedom of movement than does the maximum security prison. has barred cells and a fortified perimeter.staff to inmate ratio is slightly lower and the privileges and amenities are slightly higher.

minimum security prison

a prison that confines the least dangerous offenders for both short and long periods. It allows as much freedom of movement and as many privileges and amenities as are consistent with the goals of the facility. it may have dormitory housing, and the staff to inmate ratio is low

open institution

a minimum security facility that has no fences or walls surrounding it

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