39 terms

Biology ch 3

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Organic Compound
contain carbon atoms and are found in living things.
Inorganic Compound
do not contain carbon atoms
Functional Group
a group of atoms that influence the properties of molecules and the chemical reactions in which the molecules participate
Condensation Reaction
where 2 monomers join to form a polymer. It releases water as a byproduct
ex: Fructose + glucose = Sucrose and water
Hydrolysis Reaction
splits polymers into monomers using water
ex: Sucrose + water = glucose and fructose
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function
DNA makeup
made up of 2 strands of multiple, linked nucleotides;Sugar, Phosphate group
DNA
The nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid contains genetic information for cell activities
RNA
Ribonucleic acid molecules play many key roles in building of proteins and can act as enzymes
Location of Nucleic Acids
are found in the cell nucleus
Carbohydrate
an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen to 1 oxygen atoms
Function of Carbohydrates
a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms
Monosaccharide
monomers
Disaccharide
2 monosaccharide join to form a double sugar
Polysaccharide
3 or more monosaccharide
Glycogen
the quick-energy form of carbohydrates found in animals. It is formed by a chain of glucose
Proteins
are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
The Function of Proteins
have many functions including structural, defensive, and catalytic roles
Proteins makeup
are made up of monomers called amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a protein's shape and function.
Dipeptide
a 2 amino acid chains that are joined by peptide bonds
Polypeptide
a long chain of amino acids
Amino Acids
are monomers that make up proteins and its sequence determines proteins shape and function
Function of an Enzyme
speeds up chemical reactions and binds to specific substrates
How an Enzyme works
it binds substrates with an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme's shape and reduces the activation energy of the reaction
Lipids
are nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranes
Fatty Acids
are unbranched carbon molecules that have an hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
Triglyceride
consists of 3 fatty acids and 1 molecule of glycerol
Phospholipids
makes up cell membranes and consist of 2 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule
Wax
is made of 1 long fatty acid chain joined to 1 long alcohol chain
Steroid
is composed of 4 fused carbon rings
Phospholipids
it is both hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
Hydrophobic
water fearing, repels water
Hydrophilic
compatible with water
Nucleus
a large and complex organic molecule that store and transports information
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA are examples
Glycerol
a fatty alcohol
Saturated Fats
are solid are room temperature
ex: butter
Unsaturated Fats
are liquid at room temperature
ex: Olive Oil
C6H12O6
Carbohydrates