Cell and Molecular Biology Ch 1 & 2

KARP EDITION #7
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ROBERT HOOK
THE DISCOVERY OF CELLS IS GENERALLY CREDITED TO
CELL THEORY
ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF 1 OR MORE CELLS.
CELL THEORY
THE CELL IS THE STRUCTURAL UNIT OF LIFE
CELL THEORY
CELLS CAN ARISE FROM NON-CELLULAR (PRE-EXISTING) MATERIALS
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
AQUIRE AND UTILIZE ENGERY
CARRY OUT CHEMICAL REACTIONS
ENGAGE IN MECHANICAL ACTIVITIES
ABLE TO RESPOND TO STIMULI
CELLS EVOLVE
CAPABLE OF SELF REGULATION
FLAGELLA
MADE UP OF FLAGELLIA
FIMBRAE
ATTACHMENT TO SURFACE
CELL WALL
MADE UP OF PEPTIDOGLYCON-AMINODISACCHARIDES AND ARE JOINED BY PEPTIDE BONDS
RIBOSOME
MADE UP OF rRNA & PROTEINS
NUCLEOID
GENETIC MATERIAL
DOMAIN FOR PROKARYOTIC CELLS
ARCHAIA / EUBACTERIA
KINGDOM OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS
MONERA
DOMAIN FOR EUKARYOTIC CELLS
EUKARYA
KINGDOMS FOR EUKARYOTIC CELLS
PROTISTA
FUNGI
PLANTAE
ANIMALIA
PROTISTA
1 CELL, NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, CARRYOUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS
FUNGI
ABSORB FOOD, FILAMETOS BODY FORMS, UNICELLAR/MULICELLAR
PLANTAE
MANY CELLS, NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, CARRYOUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS
ANIMALIA
TYPE THAT INGEST FOOD
PLANT CELL
HAS A CELL WALL
CELLULOSE
PRIMARY PLANT CELL WALL
LIGIN
SECONDARY PLANT CELL WALL
NUCLEUS
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
NETWORK OF MEMBRANES
SMOOTH ER
MAKE LIPIDS & PROTEINS USED IN CELL. REGULATE CALCIUM. BREAK DOWN TOXINS.
ROUGH ER
TUBLES; MAKE & TRANSPORT PROTEINS FOR EXPORT FROM THE CELL.
RIBOSOMES
ORGANELLE WITHOUT A MEMBRANE
RIBOSOMES
MAKE PROTEINS
SMALL SUBUNIT OF RIBOSOME
RNA & PROTEINS
LARGE SUBUNIT OF RIBOSOME
rRNA & PROTEINS
GOLGI COMPLEX
(POST OFFICE OF THE CELL) PACKAGE, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION
LYSOSOMES
CONTAINS HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES THAT BREAK DOWN FOOD, UNWANTED CELLS OR CELL PARTS
PEROXISOMES
LIPID METABOLISM, PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
MITOCHONDRIA
POWERPLANT OF THE CELL, HAVE A DOUBLE MEMBRANE & OWN DNA, STORE ENERGY RELEASED FROM GLUCOSEQ
MATRIX
LIQUID PART OF MITOCHONDRIA
CRISTAE
FOLDED PART OF MITOCHONDRIA
CHLOROPLAST
FUNCTION: PHOTOSYNTHESIS
THYLAKOID
CONTAIN PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENT. MEMBRANE SACS INSIDE CHLOROPLASTS
STOMA
LIQUID PORTION OF CHLOROPLAST
GRANUS
STACKS IN CHLOROPLAST
CYTOSKELETONS
a network of fibers constructed of microtubules and microfilaments; supports cell and maintains shape
MICROFILAMENTS
the thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helical rod composed of the globular protein actin
INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT
MOTILE ELEMENT MYOSIN, A component of the cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
MICROTUBLES
MOTILE ELEMENT DYEINOR KINESIN, One of three types of cytoskeleton fibers,Thick hollow fibers made of the protein Tublin, Information Molecules move through the tubes to various parts of the cell.
ADULT STEM CELL
UNDIFFERENTIATED AND THEY CAN CONTINUE TO PRODUCE. REPLACE DAMAGED OR DISEASED ADULT TISSUE
HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS
CAN PRODUCE CELLS IN THE BONE MARROW.
EMBROYONIC STEM CELLS
DIFFERENTIATED IN VITRO, INVOLVES ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
INDUCED PLURIPOTENT CELLS
...
VIRUSES
INTERCELLULAR VIRAL STRUCTURE, INSIDE THE HOST MAKE PROTEIN CAPSID SURROUNDS THE GENETIC MATERIAL. VIRUS & HOST THEY HAVE TO BIND TO THE SURFACE OF THE HOST.
PROTONS
Positively charged particles. SAME AS ATOMIC NUMBER
ELECTRONS
NEGATIVE CHARGED PARTICLES. SAME AS NUMBER OF PROTONS
NEUTRONS
NO CHARGE. MASS NUMBER MINUS ATOMIC NUMBER
ATOMIC MASS
NUMBER OF PROTONS PLUS NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
ATOMIC NUMBER
NUMBER OF PROTONS
COVALENT BONDING
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. THE ATOMS THAT MAKE UP A MOLECULE ARE JOINED TOGETHER
NON POLAR COVALENT BONDS
ELECTRONS THAT ARE EQUALLY SHARED. H2O IS AN EXAMPLE
POLAR COVALENT BONDS
ELECTRONS THAT ARE NOT EQUALLY SHARED
NON COVALENT BONDS
...
HYDROGEN BONDS
WEAKEST BOND
IONIC BONDS
...
ELECTROSTATIC
...
VAN DE WAALS FORCES
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecuels
FREE RADICALS
ANTIOXIDENTS, RADICALS THAT HAVE EXTRA ELECTRONS
ISOTOPES
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
COMPOUND
2 OR MORE OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
MOLECULES
2 OR MORE ATOMS JOINED TOGETHER
ACIDS
PRODUCES H+ OR RELEASE PROTONS OR HYDROGEN IONS
BASES
ACCEPT PROTONS. PRODUCES OH-
CARBONIC ACID
...
PH SCALE
ACIDS: 0 TO 7
NEUTRAL: 7
BASE: 7 TO 14
BUFFERS
RESIST CHANGES DUE TO THE ADDION TO SMALL AMTS OF ACIDS AND BASES.
ONTAIN A WEAK ACID AND A CONGREATIC BASE
INORGANIC MOLECULES
DO NOT HAVE CARBON IN THEIR SKELETONS EXCEPT CO2. C-C OR C-H
INORAGNIC MOLECULES
WATER, BASES, ACIDS, BUFFERS, ELECTROLYTES
ORGANIC MOLECULES
CONTAINS CARBON. C-C, C-H
ORGANIC MOLECULES
(BIOCHEMICALS) CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, LIPIDS, NUCLECIC ACIDS.
POLYMERS
LARGE MOLECULES
MONOMERS
SMALL MOLECULES
OH
HYDROXYL
CH4
METHYL
C=O
CARBONYL
COOH
BARBOXYL
S-H
SULFHYDRYL
NH2
AMINO
MOLECULES
ALL COMPOUNDS ARE AN EXAMPLE OF ________ BUT NOT ALL _________ ARE COMPOUNDS
CHITINS
EXOSKELETONS OF INSECTS AND CRUSTACEAN