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Gravity
Advanced Mathematics: An Incremental Development - Second Edition - John Saxon
Terms in this set (54)
Point
A location.
Curve
An unbroken connection of points.
Line
A straight curve that has no ends. It has no width and continues without end in both directions.
Segment
Contains the endpoints and all points between the endpoints.
Congruent
Indicates that designated geometric qualities are equal. Geometrically identical.
Ray
Part of a line with one endpoint--the beginning point, called the origin--and extends indefinitely in one direction. Also known as a half line.
Opposite Rays
Two rays of opposite directions that lie on the same line (rays that are collinear) and that share a common endpoint.
Intersection
When two geometric figures have points in common.
Plane
A flat surface like a tabletop that has no thickness and that continues without limit in the two dimensions that define the plane. Determined by three noncollinear points, two lines that intersect at one point and/or two parallel lines.
Skew Lines
Lines that are not in the same plane. Never parallel and do not intersect.
Angle
The geometric figure formed by two rays that have a common endpoint.
The region bounded by two radii and the arc of a circle.
The difference in direction of two intersecting lines.
The rotation of a ray about its endpoint.
Coterminal Angle
When both angles have the same initial and terminal sides.
Straight Angle
When two rays have a common endpoint and point in opposite directions; has a measure of 180°
Right Angle
When two rays meet and form a "square corner"; has a measure of 90°; can also be referred to as an angle that is perpendicular.
Acute Angle
Has measures that are greater than 0° and less than 90°.
Obtuse Angle
Has measure that are greater than 90° and less than 180°.
Supplementary Angles
When the sum of the measures of two angles is 180°.
Complementary Angles
When the sum of the measures of two angles is 90°.
Equiangular Triangle
A triangle in which all the angles measure equal.
Isogonic Triangle
A triangle in which the measure of at least two angles are equal.
Right Triangle
A triangle with one right angle.
Acute Triangle
A triangle with angles that measure less than 90°.
Obtuse Triangle
A triangle that has at least one angle that measures greater than 90°.
Equilateral Triangle
A triangle in which the lengths of all sides are equal.
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle that has at least two sides of equal length.
Scalene Triangle
A triangle in which all of the sides have different lengths.
Transversal Line
A line that cuts or intersects one or more other lines in the same plane.
Alternate Angles
Angles on opposite sides of the transversal.
Corresponding Angles
Angles that have corresponding positions.
Circumference
The perimeter of a circle; The product of pi and the diameter of the circle.
Arc
Two points on a circle and all the points on the circle between them.
Area of a Rectangle
The number that equals the product of the length of the rectangle and the width of the rectangle.
Area of a Triangle
One half of the product of the base and the altitude regardless of the shape of the triangle.
Cylindrical Surface
The surface swept out by a line which is always parallel to a given line and moves along a curved path called the directrix.
Cylinder
A geometric solid determined by two parallel planes that intersect all the elements of a closed cylindrical surface.
Right Cylinder (Right Solid)
A cylinder where the bases are perpendicular to the cylindrical surface.
Circular Cylinder
A cylinder whose base is a circle.
Elliptical Cylinder
A cylinder whose base is an ellipse.
Oblique Cylinder
A cylinder whose bases are not perpendicular to the sides.
Volume of Cylinders and Prisms
Equal to the product of the area of a base and the perpendicular distance between the bases.
Lateral Surface Area of Right Cylinders and Right Prisms
The perimeter of a base multiplied by the height (where the height is defined to be the perpendicular distance between the bases).
Volume of a Cone or Pyramid
Equals one third the product of the area of the base and the height.
Slant Height of the Cone
The shortest distance from the apex to a point on the circle.
Sphere
Perfectly round, three-dimensional shape.
The Volume of a Sphere
Exactly two thirds the volume of the smallest right circular cylinder into which the sphere fits.
Triangle Inequality Postulate
The sum of the lengths of any two sides of any triangle is greater than the length of the third side.
Polygons
Simple, closed, coplanar geometric figures whose sides are straight lines.
Similar Polygons
The measures of corresponding angles must be equal, and the lengths of corresponding sides must also be proportional.
Similar Triangles
Triangles whose corresponding angles have equal measures.
Postulate
A statement that everyone accepts without proof.
Tangent
A line that intersects (touches) a circle at only one point.
Secant
A line that intersects a circle at two points.
Secant Segment
The segment from a point outside the circle to the second point of intersection.
External Secant
The segment from the point outside the circle to the first point of intersection.
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