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140 terms

A & P Exam Review 2

Quiz review in preparation for the final.
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The appendix is located at the beginning of the large intestine, on the right side of the abdomen. What quadrant is the appendix located in?
Right lower quadrant. The appendix is located at the tip of the large intestine which begins in the right lower quadrant.
The imaginary plane that divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) is called the ___________________ plane.

Transverse
Coronal
Sagittal
Digital
Transverse
A blood pressure reading of 120/80 is an example of _________________.

A sign
A symptom
Hypertension
A proper fraction
A sign. This blood pressure reading is sign because it is something that can be measured.
The study of anatomy means the study of the __________ of the body,

Structure
Function
Biology
Evolution
Structure
What is the system of measurement used by health care professionals?

Metric System
United States customary system
English system
Algebraic system
Metric System. It has a common base and allows health care personnel to identify a relationship between each unit of measure.
Using anatomical directions, your mouth is _____________ to your nose.

Inferior
Posterior
Superior
Lateral
Inferior. You mouth is below or inferior to your nose.
Which of the following is not an organism?

Gold
Bacterium
Mosquito
Pine tree
Gold. Gold is a mineral. It is inorganic (not alive) and does not possess any of the properties of life.
In what body cavity is the heart located?

Thoracic cavity
Cranial cavity
Spinal cavity
Abdominal cavity
The heart is located in the chest or thoracic cavity. Thoracic refers to the chest.
Abbreviations are used by health care personnel:

To save time by simplifying long, complicated medical terms
To keep medical information confidential
To avoid misspelling medical terminology
To communicate in secret code
To save time by simplifying long, complicated medical terms
A __________ is added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning or to make the meaning of the word more specific.

Prefix
Suffix
Root word
Verb
Prefix. Remember the pre in prefix means before.
The pH of human blood is between 7.35 - 7.45. This means that blood is slightly:

Alkaline
Neutral
Acid
Liquid
Alkaline. A pH that is above 7 on the pH scale is alkaline or a base.
What is the scientific term for the cells of the human body?

Eukaryotic cell
Erythrocyte
Leukocyte
Neuron
Eukaryotic cell is the scientific term for cells of the human body.
The cell membrane is a __________________ membrane because it regulates what moves into and out of the cell.

Semi-permeable
Cell wall
Solid
Permeable
Semi-permeable. The cell membrane is semi (partially) permeable which allows electrolytes, nutrients and waste to move in and out of the cell while keeping larger structures, such as the organelles, inside of the cell.
Because it controls the cell's activities, the nucleus of the cell is called the:

Brain
Powerhouse
Storehouse
Garbage collector
Brain. The nucleus is called the brain because it controls the activities of the cell.
The human body is organized very specifically from simple to complex: Cells form tissues which form __________ which form the systems of the human body.

Organs
Tissues
Systems
Electrolytes
Organs. Organs are made up of different types of tissues that work together to perform a function that a single tissue cannot do alone.
All cells of the body, except for the gametes (egg and sperm), reproduce by the process known as:

Mitosis
Conception
Cloning
Meiosis
Mitosis. Mitosis divides the cell, producing 2 identical daughter cells with 46 chromosomes in each.
The most abundant tissue in the body is called:

Connective tissue
Nervous tissue
Muscle tissue
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue. Because the main function of connective tissue is to "connect" or to hold things together, it has many different forms. Therefore, it is the most abundant tissue in the body.
Microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoans, that cause disease are called:

Pathogens
Normal flora
Non-pathogens
Lymphocytes
Pathogens. The word pathogen means "disease causing."
All of the systems of the human body work together to maintain:

Homeostasis
Diffusion
Magnetotaxis
Pathogens
Homeostasis. The body strives to maintain homeostasis or balance.
Using a tea bag to make a cup of tea illustrates the process of cell transport called:

Osmosis
Active transport
Filtration
Absorption
Osmosis. Osmosis is correct because the tea bag represents a semi-permeable membrane. In osmosis, substances move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
What is the medical term for the inflammation of a joint?

Arthritis
Tendonitis
Periosteum
Osteocyte
Arthritis. Arthr/o is the root word for "joint" and -itis is the suffix that means infection or inflammation of. Therefore, arthritis is the inflammation of a joint.
The scientific term for a bone cell is:

Osteocyte
Ligament
Tendon
Leukocyte
Osteocyte. Oste/o is the root word for bone and -cyte is the suffix meaning cell. Therefore, osteocytes are bone cells.
The bones of the body are classified into four categories: long, short, flat and irregular. Which bone is an example of a long bone?

Femur
Vertebra
Scapula
Carpal
Femur. The femur is an example of a long bone because it is longer than it is wide.
The function of red bone marrow is to:

Produce blood cells
Store energy
Reduce friction of joint movement
It has no function
Produce blood cells. This is an important function of red bone marrow and of the skeletal system. Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, most types of white blood cells and platelets.
Of the four categories of bones, which category does NOT produce red bone marrow?

Short
Long
Flat
Irregular
Short. Short bones do not produce red bone marrow.
The process of bone formation is called:

Ossification
Articulates
Compact
Cartilage
Ossification. Ossification refers to the formation of bones in the body. This process may also be referred to as "osteogenesis."
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

To regulate body temperature
To provide shape and support
To protect internal organs
To produce blood cells
To regulate body temperature. This is not a function of the skeletal system. Activity can increase body temperature but this requires the cooperation of several body systems.
The 206 bones of the body are divided into two main groups: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Which bone is part of the axial skeleton?

Cranium
Patella
Phalanges
Humerus
Cranium. The cranium ("brain case") is part of the axial skeleton which includes 80 bones of the head and trunk.
Which of the following minerals is responsible for maintaining bone health?

Calcium
Iron
Synovial fluid
Chondrin
Calcium. Bones store 99% of the body's calcium. Calcium strengthens bones and maintains healthy bones.
Diarthrotic (synovial) joints, or freely movable joints, are the most common joints in the body. Which of the following is NOT an example of a diarthrotic joint?

Pelvis
Knee
Carpals of the wrist
Shoulder
Pelvis. The bones of the pelvis pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. The knee, carpals, and shoulder are all diarthrotic (synovial) joints.
Which of the following terms describes the bending of a joint that moves one bone closer to another?

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Flexion.
The functional units of a skeletal muscle cell that are responsible for muscle contraction are called:

Sarcomeres
Tendons
Ligaments
Filaments
Sarcomeres. Sarcomeres contain the filaments called actin and myosin which glide past each other to contract the muscle.
Which of the following must be present to provide muscle cells with energy?

Oxygen, glucose, and ATP
Oxygen, chondrin, and ATP
Glucose, tonus, and ATP
ATP, chondrin, and tonus
Oxygen, glucose, and ATP. Glucose and oxygen work together to produce ATP. All three of these substances must be present to provide muscle cells with energy.
There are three different groups of muscles in the muscular system. What is the name of the group of muscles that has striated muscles and is responsible for voluntary muscle movement?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth
Vascular
Skeletal
Skeletal muscles work in pairs to move a body part; when one muscle contracts the other muscle relaxes. The muscle that is responsible for initiating the movement of a joint is called the primary mover or the:

Agonist
Myocyte
Antagonist
Action potential
Agonist
Which of the following muscles is an example of a smooth muscle?

Stomach
Deltoid
Heart
Biceps
Stomach. The stomach is a visceral (internal) organ that is a smooth muscle.
The musculoskeletal disorder that is the second most common cause of absenteeism in the workplace is:

Back injury
Shin splint
Hernia
Muscular dystrophy
Back injury. Because the muscles of the lower back support the spine and carry the weight of the upper body, the lower back is prone to injuries and pain.
What is the name of the diagnostic procedure that uses magnetism to evaluate injuries to muscles, tendon, ligament and cartilage?

MRI
Ultrasound
EMG
X-ray
MRI. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. It is one of the most effective methods to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries.
What is the medical term for the lack of muscle tone or the wasting away of muscle tissue?

Atrophy
Myalgia
Spasm
Paralysis
Atrophy. Atrophy = a (prefix) meaning without or absence of + trophy (root) meaning growth or development. Therefore atrophy refers to an absence of muscle tissue.
Which of the following is not a function of the muscular system?

To digest food
To maintain posture
To produce movement
To generate heat
To digest food. Although the stomach is made of smooth muscle, it is the function of the digestive system to digest food, not the muscular system.
The name of the major component of connective tissue which is responsible for sealing wounds and forming scar tissue is:

Collagen
Adipose
Phagocytes
Thrombin
Collagen
Blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands are found in which layer of the skin?

Dermis
Epidermis
Hypodermis
All layers of the skin
Dermis. All of these structures are found in the dermis.
Which of the following statements regarding burns is FALSE?

A first degree burn is the most serious type of burn.
Persons with 2nd and 3rd degree burn are at risk for infection.
Persons with 3rd degree burns may not feel pain because the nerves have been damaged.
Second and 3rd degree burns that cover more than 15% of the body are classified as a severe burn.
A first degree burn is the most serious type of burn. First degree burns affect the top layer of the skin, causing redness and pain but does not cause blistering. First degree burns are the least serious type.
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer worldwide. Most forms of skin cancer are treatable and will not spread to other organs if diagnosed early.

Which one of the following types of skin cancer is the most dangerous and spreads to other tissues and organs?

Melanoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Myoma
Melanoma. Melanomas are not as common as the other two types of skin cancer but it is the most dangerous.
The outermost layer of the skin is called the:

Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous
Epidermis
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning adipose (fatty) tissue, which is found in the hypodermis?

Adipose tissue does not have any important functions.
Adipose tissue provides a cushion that protects internal organs.
Adipose tissue stores the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Adipose tissue provides stored energy and helps to keep the body warm.
Adipose tissue does not have any important functions. This is an incorrect statement--Adipose (fatty) tissue has several important functions.
What is the name of the muscle that is responsible for causing goose bumps?

Arrector pili
Masseter
Bicep
Gastrocnemius
Arrector pili. Goose bumps trap small pockets of air that help to keep the body warm.
The pigment that gives skin its color and protects the skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays is called:

Melanin
Sebum
Elastin
Keratin
Melanin. Melanin is produced by melanocytes [melan/o = melanin + cytes = cells].
What is the name for a lesion (abnormal tissue) that is a small sac filled with fluid and is commonly called "a blister"?

Vesicle
Scale
Macule
Fissure
Vesicle
When body temperature rises, the diameter of the blood vessels increases and moves blood vessels closer to the surface of the skin. The medical term that describes the dilation of blood vessels is:

Vasodilatation
Excretion
Vasoconstriction
Pruritis
Vasodilatation. Vas/o = blood vessel + dilation = to enlarge, widen. Therefore vasodilatation means to enlarge the size of the blood vessel.
The myocardium, the middle layer of the heart, is made of what type of muscle tissue?

Cardiac muscle
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle
Endocardium
Cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is only found in heart muscle.
What blood type is known as the universal donor?

Type O
Type AB
Type A
Type B
Type O. Because Type O blood does not contain either antigen A or antigen B, there is nothing foreign in the blood for the recipient's blood to attack. Therefore, Type O can donate to all blood types.
Coronary circulation describes the flow of blood to what area of the body?

Heart
Kidneys
Brain
Lungs
Heart. Coronary means heart. Therefore coronary circulation describes the flow of blood to the muscle of the heart.
The cardiovascular disease that results from the buildup of plaque in the arteries of the heart is called:

Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Anemia
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Coronary artery disease (CAD). In coronary artery disease, plaque builds up on the lining of the arteries and can block the supply of blood to the heart causing tissue death or an acute myocardial infarction.
The medical term for the ventricles at rest (not contracting) is:

Diastole
Systole
Asystole
Pulse
Diastole. In a blood pressure reading, the diastolic pressure is the bottom number.
The blood vessels that have valves and are responsible for transporting blood back to the heart are called:

Veins
Arteries
Capillaries
Nerves
Veins
Which of the following is NOT a component of blood?

Sebum
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Thrombocytes
Sebum. Sebum is produced by the sebaceous (oil) glands in the skin and keeps the skin soft and waterproof.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the cardiovascular system?

To provide shape and support
To transport oxygen and nutrients to cells of the body
To regulate body temperature, pH and the water content of the cells
To protect the body by providing immunity and clotting blood
To provide shape and support
Which chamber of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the aorta and the rest of the body?

Left ventricle
Right atrium
Left atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
The correct term for the primary pacemaker of the heart is:

SA node (sinoatrial node)
Purkinje fibers
Mitral valve
Interventricular septum
SA node (sinoatrial node)
Which of the following statements about lymph vessels is FALSE?

Lymph vessels transport blood and lymph.
The lymph vessels have valves.
Lymph vessels return lymph back to the cardiovascular system.
Lymph vessels run parallel to the cardiovascular system.
Lymph vessels transport blood and lymph. Lymph vessels ONLY transport lymph and do not transport blood.
A healthy immune system is able to recognize the difference between self and non-self antigens. What is a non-self antigen?

A molecule on the surface of a cell that the body doesn't recognize
A molecule on the surface of a cell that belongs to the body
A phagocyte
A cytokine
A molecule on the surface of a cell that the body doesn't recognize. Non-self pathogens are antigens that are foreign to the body such as bacteria and viruses.
Which of the following processes is NOT involved in the acute inflammatory response?

De-oxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs
Chemicals are released
The injured area swells and becomes red, warm and painful
White blood cells (WBCs) attack foreign invaders
De-oxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs. This is part of the pulmonary circulation of the cardiovascular system.
Which of the following organs is NOT a lymph organ?

Gall bladder
Spleen
Tonsils
Thymus
Gall bladder. The gall bladder stores bile and is not a lymph organ.
Receiving a vaccination, such as a chicken pox vaccination, is an example of what type of acquired immunity?

Artificial active immunity
Natural active immunity
Natural passive immunity
Artificial passive immunity
Artificial active immunity. Artificial active immunity occurs intentionally by vaccinating an individual with a small sample of an antigen to stimulate production of memory cells.
Where are white blood cells (WBCs) produced?

Red bone marrow
Lymph nodes
Thymus
Lungs
Red bone marrow. White blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are produced by the stem cells in the red bone marrow.
Antibodies that identify and neutralize foreign invaders are produced by what type of cell?

B-cells
T-cells
Neutrophils
Macrophages
B-cells. In adaptive immunity, B-cells produce antibodies that attach to non-self antigens, neutralizing them and marking them for destruction.
Lymph is a clear fluid that comes from what portion of the blood?

Plasma
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
Plasma. Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood.
Which of the following groups of disorders describes an immune response that is reduced or absent?

Immunodeficiency disorders
Autoimmune disorders
Allergic reactions
Cancer
Immunodeficiency disorders
What is the main function of the lymphatic and immune systems?

To protect the body against disease and infections
To pump oxygen to the cells of the body
To provide the body with shape and support
To store vitamins and fat
To protect the body against disease and infections. Although the lymphatic and immune systems have several functions, this is the main function.
The double outer lining of the lungs is filled with a small amount of fluid that prevents friction as the lungs expand and contract. The name of this lining is the:

Pleura
Pericardium
Periosteum
Epidermis
Pleura
Which of the following is not a symptom of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD?

Hypertension
Dyspnea
Wheezing
Use of accessory muscles for breathing
Hypertension. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, may accompany COPD but it is not necessarily a symptom.
An inspirometer is an instrument that measures the normal amount of air that is exchanged during ventilation. This exchange of air is called the:

Tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve
Expiratory reserve
Vital capacity
Answer goes here
What type of connective tissue is present in the trachea and bronchial tree and is responsible for keeping the airway open?

Cartilage
Bone
Cilia
Mucous membranes
Cartilage. "C" rings in the trachea and "O" rings in the bronchi are made of cartilage and prevent the airways from collapsing.
Which of the following structures is not a part of the upper respiratory tract?

Alveoli
Pharynx
Nasal passages
Larynx
Alveoli. Alveoli are the functional unit of the lungs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is the correct term for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli of the lungs?

Respiration
Ventilation
Contraction
Anaphylaxis
Respiration
Which statement regarding the effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system is FALSE?

Tobacco smoke has no effect on the respiratory system.
Tobacco smoke paralyzes the cilia and prevents them from sweeping out foreign particles.
Tobacco smoke stimulates mucous production, increasing irritation, infection and lung damage.
Tobacco smoke forms carboxyhemoglobin which lowers the ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen.
Tobacco smoke has no effect on the respiratory system.
During inspiration, which way does the diaphragm move?

Downward
Upward
Towards the vertebrae
It doesn't move
Downward. The diaphragm is the major muscle of respiration. By moving downward, the diaphragm increases the size of the thoracic cavity and draws air into the lungs.
The primary function of the respiratory system is:

The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood
Provides immunity and prevents the spread of infection
Pumps blood throughout the body
Provides shape and support
The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood
Which of the following pathogens causes most upper respiratory tract infections (URIs)?

Viruses
Protozoa
Fungi
Bacteria
Viruses
What part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response?

Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Central nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system triggers the fight or flight response when the body senses some type of threat.
The medical term for the functional unit of the nervous system, sometimes referred to as a brain cell or nerve, is a:

Neuron
Erythrocyte
Osteocyte
Phagocyte
Neuron
The spinal cord is made up of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves. What is the main responsibility of the spinal cord?

To transmit sensory information to the brain and return information from the brain to the effectors (muscles and glands)
To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
To pump blood and nutrients throughout the body
To filter blood and produce, store and remove red blood cells and lymphocytes.
To transmit sensory information to the brain and return information from the brain to the effectors (muscles and glands)
Which of the following structures is the largest part of the brain that is concerned with thought, reasoning and personality?

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brain stem
Vertebrae
Cerebrum. The cerebrum is the largest structure of the brain. It is divided into the right and left hemisphere and has four different lobes.
Sensory neurons transmit information along the axon by a process called a/an:

Action potential
Mitosis
Diarthrosis
Contraction
Action potential. An action potential opens sodium gates, allowing sodium ions to flow inside of the cell. This process changes the negative charge inside of the cell to a positive charge.
What is the name of the junction or "bridge" that that allows an impulse to jump from one neuron to another?

Synapse
Reflex
Paralysis
Neuroglia
Synapse. A synapse allows an impulse to jump from one neuron to another.
Which of the following assessment methods identifies damage to the nervous system?

Checking to see if the pupils of the eyes are equal and react to light
A chest x-ray
A complete blood count (CBC)
Measuring height and weight
Checking to see if the pupils of the eyes are equal and react to light. Checking pupils is one method of evaluating the function of the nervous system. Checking LOC and orientation is also important.
Disruption of the blood flow to the brain by a blood clot or bleeding and that produces weakness, paralysis, slurred speech and confusion is called a:

Cerebrovascular accident
Myocardial infarction
Pulmonary embolus
Deep vein thrombosis
Cerebrovascular accident. Correct answer. A cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or a stroke that interrupts blood flow to the brain for longer than 4-6 minutes can cause irreversible damage to the nervous system.
Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system?

Produces red blood cells
Senses changes in the internal and external environment
Interprets changes in the internal and external environment
Responds to changes in the internal and external environment
Produces red blood cells. This is a function of the skeletal system. Red blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow.
According to SCI-Recovery.org, what is the leading cause of spinal cord injuries?

Motor vehicle accidents
Sports
Falls
Violence
Motor vehicle accidents. Approximately 44% of spinal cord injuries are caused by motor vehicle accidents.
The structure of the eye that changes an image to an electrical impulse and sends it to the brain via the optic nerve is called the:

Retina
Cornea
Lens
Conjunctiva
Retina
Which structure of the ear is known as the organ of hearing?

Cochlea
Tympanic membrane
Auricle or pinna
Ossicles of the ear
Cochlea. The cochlea is called the organ of hearing. It transmits sound to the auditory nerve.
The ability to see is based on which of the following processes?

Refraction
Equilibrium
Convergence
Diffusion
Refraction. Correct answer. The sense of vision requires light in order for the eye to see. Light that enters the eye is bent by a process called refraction.
The refractive error that occurs when objects are focused in front of the retina rather than on the retina is called:

Myopia
Hyperopia
Astigmatism
Presbyopia
Myopia. Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, occurs when the eyeball is too long, causing the image to focus in front of the retina. This affects the ability to clearly see objects at a distance.
The specialized receptors that identify the sensations of touch, temperature, pain and pressure are mainly found in which layer of the skin?

Dermis
Epidermis
Adipose tissue
Spleen
Dermis. Specialized receptors are located in the dermis of the skin.
Which of the following is not one of the five basic senses?

Common sense
Olfactory sense
Gustatory sense
Auditory sense
Common sense. Common sense is a figure of speech and is not one of the five basic senses.
What is the name of the receptor that sends information regarding scents and odors to the brain?

Olfactory receptors
Gustatory receptors
Thermoreceptors
Visual receptors
Olfactory receptors. Olfactory receptors transmit information regarding scents and odors to the brain.
The ear has two important functions. One of these functions is hearing. What is the other function?

Maintaining balance and equilibrium
Fighting disease and infection
Exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the cells
Pumping blood throughout the body
Maintaining balance and equilibrium. The semicircular canals or vestibular system in the inner ear are responsible for maintaining balance and equilibrium.
The medical term for an infection of the middle ear is called:

Otitis media
Tinnitus
Macular degeneration
Diabetic retinopathy
Otitis media. Otitis [ot/o = ear + it is = infection] media [middle] is an infection of the middle ear. The infection causes drainage to collect in the middle ear and applies pressure on the tympanic membrane.
In order for taste to occur, a substance must be dissolved in what substance?

Saliva
Lymph
Blood
Air
Saliva. Saliva helps to break down substances into taste molecules that stimulate the gustatory receptor cells.
What is the scientific name for the "master gland"?

Pituitary gland
Testes
Thyroid gland
Ovaries
Pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is called the master gland because it regulates the activities of the other endocrine glands.
The adrenal glands produce about 30 hormones including adrenalin, aldosterone, cortisol and androgens. Where are the adrenal glands located?

On top of the kidneys
In the anterior portion of the neck
In the diencephalon of the brain
In the upper thorax
On top of the kidneys
The main function of the endocrine system is to maintain homeostasis by producing and secreting hormones into the bloodstream. What does the term "secrete" mean?

To deliver specialized substances into the bloodstream, tissues or organs
To remove waste products from the body
To make or produce
A substance that increases the production of urine
To deliver specialized substances into the bloodstream, tissues or organs
What is the name of the disorder that is caused by an insufficient level of insulin production by the pancreas?

Diabetes mellitus
Dwarfism
Graves' disease
Pheochromocytoma
Diabetes mellitus
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an endocrine gland?

Ducts connect to an anatomical surfaces such as digestive organs and the skin
Does not have ducts
Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
Works with the nervous system to regulate activities of the body
Ducts connect to an anatomical surfaces such as digestive organs and the skin. This is a characteristic of exocrine glands, not endocrine glands.
Which gland serves as a go-between the nervous and endocrine systems and regulates the activities of the pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus
Parathyroid
Thymus
Cerebellum
Hypothalamus
Which of the following is not one of the side effects of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse?

Acromegaly (abnormal bone growth)
Behavioral changes such as depression, aggression, mood swings
Shrinkage of the testicles, decreased sperm production, infertility in men
Increased facial hair, lowered voice, absence of menstrual cycle in women
Acromegaly (abnormal bone growth). Acromegaly is a potential side affect of human growth hormone abuse.
The thyroid gland produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. What is the main function of these hormones?

To regulate metabolism
To regulate sleep cycles and influences reproduction
To stimulate uterine contractions during pregnancy
To accelerate the level of growth of the body
To regulate metabolism
Hormones are chemical messengers that bind with receptors on specific cells that are called:

Target cells
Neurons
Melanocytes
Leukocytes
Target cells
When receptor cells detect low levels of calcium in the blood, the brain responds by sending a signal to the parathyroid glands to release parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH goes to its target cells which release calcium into the bloodstream, returning the calcium level back to normal. This process is called:

Negative feedback
Respiration
Refraction
Diffusion
Negative feedback
What is the function of bile that is produced and secreted by the liver?

Breaks down fat into fatty acids
Breaks down starches into sugars
Breaks down proteins into amino acids
Breaks down water into hydrogen and oxygen
Breaks down fat into fatty acids. The function of bile is to help with the digestion of fats to be used by the cells as energy.
The category of diseases caused by an abnormal preoccupation with weight resulting in a severe disturbance in eating behaviors is called:

Eating disorders
Obesity
Enzyme disorders
Hormonal disorders
Eating disorders
Which of the following glands has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

Pancreas
Gall bladder
Liver
Pituitary gland
Pancreas. The pancreas is the only gland that secretes hormones (insulin and glucagon) and enzymes (tripsan, lipase).
Which statement describes the main function of the gastrointestinal system?

The breakdown of food into molecules that can be used by the cells for nutrition and energy
To provide the blood with oxygen that is collected from the air and to remove carbon dioxide, a waste product
To sense, interpret and respond to the internal and external environment
To protect the body from injury, infection and dehydration
The breakdown of food into molecules that can be used by the cells for nutrition and energy
The result of gastric or stomach contents that back-flows into the esophagus is a disorder called:

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cholecystitis
Celiac disease
Cirrhosis
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Stomach (gastric) contents that back flow into the esophagus (esophageal) are called reflux. This results in gastroesophageal reflux disease.
What is the function of enzymes?

Speeds up chemical reactions in the body
Stimulates the kidneys to increase the production of urine
Regulates most activities of the body
Allows the red blood cells to carry oxygen
Speeds up chemical reactions in the body
Food and fluids move through the digestive tract by wave-like muscle movements called:

Peristalsis
Inflammation
Flexion
Vasodilatation
Peristalsis
Which of the following is not one of the processes of the gastrointestinal system?

Coagulation
Ingestion
Digestion
Elimination
Coagulation. Coagulation is the process of clot formation and is not one of the processes of the gastrointestinal system.
What type of muscle makes up the organs of the gastrointestinal system?

Smooth muscle
Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
Cartilage
Smooth muscle. Smooth muscles are non-striated muscles that make up the internal organs.
Small intestine
Esophagus
Stomach
Liver
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When glomerular filtrate leaves the collecting ducts, it is called:

Urine
Chyme
Renal calculus
Feces
Urine
The hormones that regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and maintain blood pressure are:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone and renin
Estrogen and progesterone
Thyroxine and triiodothyronine
Insulin and glucagon
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone and renin. ADH is produced secreted by the pituitary gland. Aldosterone is produced secreted by the adrenal glands and rennin is produced secreted by specialized cells in the kidneys.
According to the BOK article that you read, what are the two most common causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Diabetes and hypertension
Viruses and bacteria
Ibuprophen and naproxyn
Sugar and salt
Diabetes and hypertension. Of the many causes of CKD, diabetes and hypertension are the most common.
The functional unit of the kidney is called a(n):

Nephron
Alveoli
Neuron
Villi
Nephron. The components of the nephron work together to filter the blood, removing waste and extra fluids.
The structures that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder are called:

Ureters
Collecting duct
Nephrons
Urethra
Ureters. The ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder by peristalsis.
Approximately how much urine is produced by the kidneys each day?

2 quarts
200 quarts
5 gallons
8 ounces
2 quarts
The mechanical filtration of blood through an artificial membrane is called:

Dialysis
Gustation
Digestion
Micturation
Dialysis
Which of the following is not one of the functions of the urinary system?

Prevents infection and fights disease
Maintains electrolyte balance
Filters blood and removes waste products
Regulates water balance and blood pressure
Prevents infection and fights disease. This is an important function of the lymphatic and immune syste
Which of the following is not a normal characteristic of urine?

Glucose
pH of 4.5-8.0
Amber colored
Clear
Glucose. Glucose is not normally found in the urine. Glucose in the urine could indicate that the individual has diabetes mellitus.
In the nephron, where are nutrients, ions and water reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate and transported to the blood stream?

Tubules
Bladder
Urethra
Renal capsule
Tubules. The tubules, particularly the proximal convoluted tubule, are responsible for reabsorbing nutrients, ions and water from the glomerular filtrate to the blood stream.
Which of the following is not a symptom of testicular cancer?

Blood in the urine
Painless swelling of the testicle
Pain in the lower abdomen, groin or lower back
Lump in one or both testicles
Blood in the urine. This is not a symptom of testicular cancer.
Which of the following hormones stimulates uterine contractions during labor?

Oxytocin
Progesterone
Prolactin
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Oxytocin
What is the name of the milk production glands that are located in the breasts?

Mammary glands
Pituitary glands
Adrenal glands
Thyroid glands
Mammary glands
During what stage of the menstrual cycle does menstrual bleeding occur?

Menstrual phase
Proliferative phase
Luteal phase
Third trimester
Menstrual phase. The first day of the menstrual cycle begins with the first day of menstrual bleeding. The menstrual phase is approximately the first 5 days of the cycle.
Gametes are produced by the process of meiosis. How many chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of each gamete?

23 chromosomes
46 chromosomes
56 chromosomes
No chromosomes
23 chromosomes. When the egg and the sperm unite, the zygote has 46 chromosomes which is the normal number of chromosomes in all cells of the body.
The hormone that stimulates the development of secondary male sex characteristics and sperm production is called:

Testosterone
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
Testosterone
Sperm mature and gain mobility in which organ of the male reproductive system?

Epididymis
Testicles
Penis
Vas deferens
Epididymis. Immature sperm travel from the testicles to the epididymis via the vas deferens where they mature and gain mobility.
Where does the fertilization of the egg by the sperm occur?

Fallopian (uterine) tubes
Uterus
Ovary
Vagina
Fallopian (uterine) tubes. The fertilization of the egg by the sperm occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then travels to the uterus where it is implanted in the endometrium.
The abnormal growth of endometrial cells outside of the uterus, generally in the ovaries, fallopian tubes or outside surfaces of the uterus is called:

Endometriosis
Breast cancer
Vaginitis
Balanitis
Endometriosis. Endometriosis is the growth of endometrial cells outside of the uterus, generally in the ovaries, fallopian tubes or outside surfaces of the uterus. Endometrial cells normally grow in the uterus.
Which of the following is not a function of the reproductive system?

To filter blood and remove waste products
To produce gametes
To reproduce human beings
To produce sex hormones
To filter blood and remove waste products. Filtering blood and removing waste products is the function of the urinary system.