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Psychology Midterm Review- From Quizzes

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Phrenology highlighted the potential importance of
specific brain regions
Dr. Weber does research on the potential relationship between sex hormones and emotional behavior. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Weber's research best represent
Biological psychology
Dendrites are branching extensions of
neurons
The function of dendrites is to
Receive incoming information from other neurons
The long part of the neuron is the
dendrite
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by
myelin sheath
Neural impulses may travel as rapidly as
200 miles per hour
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron
action potential
the depolarization of a neural membrane creates a
action potential
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
Positively charged atoms are pumped back outside the neural membrane
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
threshold
increasing the intensity of a stimulus above the threshold will similarly increase the intensity of a neural response to that stimulus. this highlights the nature of the
all or none response
a synapse is
a junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The body's speedy electrochemical information system is called the
nervous system
nerves are neural cables containing many
axons
when Jim was stung by a bee, the pain message was transmitted to his spinal cord by the
peripheral nervous system
In order for you to be able to run, _____ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles
motor neurons
Motor neurons are to the ___ nervous system as inter neurons are to the _____ nervous system
Peripheral; Central
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movement of your legs when you walk
somatic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is a division of the _____ nervous system
autonomic
When Mr. Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heart beat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his_____ nervous system
Sympathetic
The neurons of the central nervous system cluster into functional systems known as
neural networks
a brain lesion refers to ____ of brain tissue
destruction
X- Ray photographs of the brain are necessary to produce a
CT Scan
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the special usefulness of an
PET scan
Which technique involves the use of magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of the brain's soft tissue
MRI
Your life would be most threatened if you suffered the destruction of the
medulla
Which nerve network in the brain stem plays an important role in controlling arousal
reticular formation
The thalamus serves as a
sensory switchboard
A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the
cerebellum
The amygdala and hypothalamus are part of the
limbic system
Wilhelm Wundt used the research method known as
Introspection
In a study of human visual experience, research participants are asked to carefully monitor and describe their own immediate and ongoing visual sensations. The participants are employing a research technique known as
Introspection
In order to evaluate various theories of human behavior, contemporary psychologists rely most heavily on the process of
Scientific observation
Angie wonders whether her calm and relaxed personality style was learned or inherited. Angie's concern is most directly relevant to the issue of
Nature Vs. Nurture
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
Neuroscience
mark believes that people's dislike of bitter- Tasting foods is an inherited trait because it has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ___ perspective
Evolutionary
Which perspective is most directly concerned with understanding the relative impact of heredity and experience on personality development
behavior genetics
A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a ____ perspective
Psycho dynamic
The study of human problem- solving strategies is most likely to be a central focus of the ____ perspective
cognitive
Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcoholism among citizens of a small African country can be attributed to strong fundamentalistic religious influences in that region. This belief best illustrates a ___ perspective
Social- cultural
Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?
Industrial/Organizational psychology
Working in a community heath center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. Thatcher is most likely a ____ psychologist
Clinical
Whether informed that research has supported the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self- esteem or informed that the esteem- enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research, most people would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of
The hindsight bias
When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates
Overconfidence
Those who approach the study of psychology with an attitude of curious skepticism are especially likely to
question the validity of research findings
Hypotheses are best described as
Predictions
Operational definitions are most likely to facilitate
Replication
In order to gain further understanding of how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observed and questioned two stroke victims. Which research method did Dr. Mosher employ?
The case study
Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political preferences and the economic status of North Americans
The survey
Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population
Random Sampling
naturalistic observation is most useful for
Describing behavior s
A statistical measure that indicates how well one factor predicts a second factor is called a
Correlation Coefficient
A scatter plot graphically depicts the
Degree of relationship between two variable
If those with low self esteem are also particularly likely to suffer from depression, this would not necessarily indicated that low self esteem triggers negative emotions because
Correlation does not prove causation
in order to test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste- sensitivity test. This research is an example of
An experiment
The double blind procedure is most likely to be utilized in....Research
experimental
Research participants consumed either caffeinated or decaffeinated beverages in a study of the effects of caffeine on anxiety levels. those who received the decaffeinated drinks were exposed to the _____ condition
Control
In order to minimize any preexisting differences between participants who are in different conditions of an experiment, psychologists make use of
random assignment
Random sampling is to ____ as random assignment is to ______
Surveys; Experiments
In a psychological experiment, researches are interested in studying the potential effects of the ____ variable
independent
During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1. The mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was
7
Which part of a neuron is often encased by a myelin sheath
axon
The myelin sheath helps to increase the _____ of neural impulses
Speed
The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron produces
Action potential
A neural impulse is generated only when excitatory minus inhibitory signals exceed a certain
Threshold
The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the
Axon
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the
Synaptic Gap
After 3 hours of playing a physically exhausting professional tennis match, Chitra began to experience a sense of physical exhilaration and pleasure. It is likely that her feelings were most directly linked to the release of
Endorphins
Agonists mimic the activity of
neurotransmitters
Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via
inter neurons
Motor neurons are to the ___ nervous system as inter neurons are to the ___ nervous system
Peripheral; Central
The parasympathetic nervous system is a division of the ____ nervous system
Autonomic
The thalamus serves as a
Sensory switchboard
A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the
cerebellum
which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as rage and fear
amygdala
Which component of the limbic system plays an essential role in the formation of new memories
Hippocampus
Attribution theory was designed to account for
How people explain other's behaviors
Alicia insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of
A dis positional attribution
Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their ___ or to their ____
Dispositions; Situations
We have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of _____ and to explain our own behavior in terms of _____
Personality traits; situational constraints
Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior
beliefs and feelings
Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that:
Actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes
Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if....
She is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting
The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
Phillip Zimbardo devised a stimulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners and guards. This experiment best illustrates the impact of
Role playing on attitudes
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify out attitudes
cognitive dissonance theory
we are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel ____ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally ____
a great; disapprove
Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines
even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect
Ben hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his families disapproval. Ben's behavior exemplifies the importance of
normative social influence
Accepting other's opinions about reality is to ___ as the desire to gain approval is to ____
informative social influence; normative social influence
In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of the shock if
the experiment was conducted at a prestigious institute
Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because
the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted
Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
perform well learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as
social loafing
Professor Evans believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal blood chemistry. Professor Evans favors a ____ perspective on depression
Neuroscience
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors. This view point best illustrates the _____ perspective
Evolutionary
Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affection. Her belief is best illustrated by the ____ perspective
Behavioral
Dr. Robinson conducts basic research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson's research best represent
biological psychology
Dr. Mills engages in basic research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent
social psychology
Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of
The hindsight bias
Government experts who are convinced of the correctness of their own mistaken political predictions most clearly demonstrate
overconfidence
A hypothesis is an
testable prediction that gives direction to research
surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "government welfare" than "government aid to the needy" these somewhat paradoxial survey results best illustrate the importance of
wording effects
Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does. Jeff illustrates
the false consensus effect
In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor Devries randomly selected and interviews about 50 of the school's students. in this instance all the children attending the school are considered the
population
In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all the currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of
random sampling
If those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively, this would NOT necessarily that watching TV violence influence aggressive behavior because
correlation does not prove causation
Illusory correlation refers to
the perception of a relationship between two variables that does NOT actually exist
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effects on some behavior or mental process
experimentation
being randomly assigned to the experimental condition in a research project involves being assigned
to that condition by chance
In a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ____ variable
independent
The mean of a distribution of scores is the
arithmetic average of all scores
The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the body's information processing
neurons
the branching extensions of nerve cells that receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons are called
dendrites
Which part of the neuron is often encased by a myelin sheath
axon
the movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron produces a
action potential
an all or none response pattern is characteristic of the
initiation of neural impulses
information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via
interneurons
motor neurons are to ____ nervous system as interneurons are to the ____ nervous system
Peripheral; central
The thalamus serves as a
sensory switchboard
Which regions of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receive visual information
occipital
direct stimulation of a part of the motor cortex would most likely result in
movement of a hand
the sensory cortex is located in the ___ lobes
parietal
The cortical regions that are not primarily concerned with sensory or motor functions are known as
association areas
the use of free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
according to Freud, the unconscious is
the thoughts, wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
ID
Ego is to ID as ___ is to __-
Reality principle; pleasure principle
According to Freud the personality system that represents out sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
superego
according to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of
psychosexual development
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
projection
which neo Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development
Jung
Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called
traits
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
personality traits
Victor explains that his brother's aggressive behavior results from his brother's insecurities. Victor's explanation of his brother's behavior is an example of
an attribution
The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon another's behavior is called
the fundamental attribution error
beliefs and feelings that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called
attitudes
the tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as
foot in the door phenomenon
studies of role playing most directly highlight the effects of
actions on attitudes
which theory assumes that we adopt certain attitudes in order to justify our past actions
Cognitive dissonance theory
Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines were identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study
conformity
Conformity resulting from the acceptance of other's opinions about reality is said to be a response to
informational social influence
Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to
exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal
individuals who are normally law abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. this change in behavior is best understood in terms of
deindividuation
Group polarization refers to
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion
an overwhelming desire for harmony in a decision making group increases the probability of
group think
because he mistakenly expects substandard work from his minority employees, Mr. Johnson treats them in a patronizing manner that causes them to become demoralized and unproductive. this best illustrates the importance of
self fulfilling prophecies
An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members is called
prejudice
A teratogen is
a substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child
The leading cause of metal retardation ____, may result in babies whose mothers drank alcohol heavily during pregnancy
fetal alcohol syndrome
Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the
cheek
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in
drawing of a human face
Maturation refers to
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience
For year old Karen cant remember anything of the first few months of her life. this is best explained by the fact that
many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth
According to Piaget schemas are
People's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
assimilation
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to
adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences
Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ____ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ____
assimilation, Accommodation
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Cindy understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Cindy is clearly in Piaget's ____ stage
Sensorimotor
According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the _____ stage
Preoperational
If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation they are unable to
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
According to Piaget, ego-centrism refers to
the inability to perceive things from another persons point of view
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
secure attachment
instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located at the pediatricians waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
insecure attachment
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Allen's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Allen is most likely to suffer some loss of
visual perception
Auditory stimulation is first processed in the _____ lobes
temporal
The motor cortex is located in the ___ lobes
frontal
If a neurosurgeon directly stimulated parts of your sensory cortex, what would you experience
a sense of being touched
The part of the left frontal lobe that directs muscle movement involved in speech is known as
Broca's area
the capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as
plasticity
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe
Beginning at the front of the brain and working backwards then down and around, which of the following is the correct order of the cortical regions
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
A split brain patient has a picture of a knife flashed to her left hemisphere and that of a fork to her right hemisphere. she will be able to
identify the fork using her left hand
chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called
hormone
Which region of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receives visual information
occipital lobes
Alicia suffered a brain disease that destroyed major portions of her temporal lobes. Alicia is most likely to suffer some loss of
auditory perception
Direct stimulation of a part of the motor cortex would most likely result in
movement of a hand
The sensory cortex is located in the
parietal lobe
Broca's area is located in the left ____ lobes
frontal
When Susan was a child, a brain disease required the surgical removal of her left cerebral hemisphere. Susan is now a successful college student who lives a normal life. her success best illustrates the importance of
plasticity
Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by
corpus callosum
Based on research what seems true about the specialized functions of the right and left hemispheres
most complex activities emerge from the integrated activity of both hemispheres
Freud observed that certain symptoms of illness were relieved when patients talked freely about their past. this led Freud to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
psychological processes
The use of free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
A psychotherapist instructs David to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to his mind. The therapist is using a technique known as
free association
According to Freud the unconscious is
the thoughts wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware
When 2 year old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his
ID
According to Freud the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
superego
Elmer wants to be a loving husband but at the same time he wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Elmer's ___ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires
Ego
Two year old Donald frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure for demonstrating his independence. Freud would have suggested that Donald is going through the ____ stage of development
anal
One night after he heard his parents arguing. 4 year old Wei had a vived dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten from a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects
Oedipus complex
According to Freud during the period between age 6 and puberty children
experience very little sexual interest
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
projection
the defense mechanism in which self justifying explanations replace the real unconscious reasons for actions is
rationalization
Displacement refers to the process by which people
redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets
personality is best defined as an individual's
characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting
In suggesting that the mind is like an ice berg. Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the
unconscious
According to Freud's theory, the ego
is the executive part of personality
Which phase of development extends from the beginning of sexual maturity to independent childhood
adolescence
An example of a primary sex characteristic is
Woman's ovaries
Vincent's ability to test hypotheses successfully in his geometry class indicates he is the _____ stage of development
formal operational
Henry resits stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because He's afraid his mother will spank him if he does. Henry's thinking best represents a ____ morality
pre conventional
A student who does not cheat on tests because he fears what his friends will think of him if he gets caught is in Kohlberg's ___ stage
Conventional
Piaget is to cognitive development as Erikson is to ____ development
Moral
According to Erickson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience
Role Confusion
What is true of physical development in adult life
Sensory ability and reaction time reach their peak by the mid twenties
An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of reasoning and memory is called
Alzheimer's disease
Menopause refers to
The cessation of menstruation
Lewis is a 70 year old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably
does not hear as well
Research on the elderly has shown that
They become increasingly prone to car accidents
Dementia is most commonly associated with
Alzheimer's disease
Older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningless material shows greater decline than their capacity to learn and remember meaningful material. This best illustrates the value of
Crystallized intelligence
Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's
Ability to reason speedily and abstractly
The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically. Developmentalists would say that the ____ has been altered
Time clock
After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that
Their marriage will have a higher than average probability of ending in divorce
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
Sensation
Perception is the process by which
Sensory input is selected, organized and interpreted
Patient's negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedures can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of
Top down processing
Julie has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. Julie most clearly suffers a deficiency in
Bottom up processing
The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the
Absolute threshold
Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute threshold
signal detection theory
People response to sibliminal stimulation indicates that
They are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so
The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to the perceived is known as
Weber's law
Difference threshold are smaller for the ____ than for the ____
pitch of sound; brightness of lights
Sensory adaptation refers to
diminishing sensitivity to an unchangeable stimulus
The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called
Transduction
The local fire department sounds the 12;00 whistle. The process by which you rears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of
Transduction
Accommodation refers to
Process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina
Which cells are located closest to the back of the retina
Rods and cones
The blind spot is located in the area of the retina
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye
Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue lights is most directly supportive of the ___ theory
Young- Helmholtz
Color constancy refers to the fact that
Objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes
The cochlea is
Fluid filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
The basilar membrane is line with
Hair cells
Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ____ of a sound
Location
Our inability to consciously perceive all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
Selective attention
When there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more senses, which sense tends to dominate the others
Vision
Gestalt psychologists emphasized that
The whole is more than the sum of its parts
The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called
Figure ground phenomenon
Retinal disparity refers to the
Somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object
Which of the following is a binocular cue for the perception of distance
Convergence
The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as
Interposition
Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of
Shape constancy
As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This illustrates the phenomenon of
Size constancy
Jody's horse looks just as black in the brilliant sunlight as it does in the dim light of the stable. this illustrates what is know as
Lightness constancy