The mixed spinal nerves are formed by the union of _________ & __________.
ventral & dorsal spinal roots
T/F The ventral root of the sacral spinal cord contains the axon of neuron in the anterior & lateral grey columns.
T/F The ganglia of the sacral spinal cord are located in the intervertebral foramina.
False: located in vertebral canal
T/F In the upper cervical region, the spinal cord levels are almost identical to the vertebral level.
True: in C1 & C2, C3 - C8: oblique & the oblique length increases as you proceed down the vertebral levels.
T/F The recurrent meningeal branches of the spinal nerves are branched after the dorsal & ventral rami are divided.
False: the spinal nerve gives off the recurrent meningeal branches of the spinal nerve & then divides immediately into a dorsal & a ventral ramus
A grey ramus communicates or joins to the ______ of each spinal nerve.
meningeal branches (aka recurrent meningeal nerves of the spinal nerve or sinu-vertebral nerves)
The ventral rami of the thoracic & the 1st & 2nd lumbar nerve contribute ___________ to the corresponding sympathetic ganglion & receive ___________.
a white ramus communicans, 1 or more grey ramus communication
T/F The S2, S3 & S4 receive grey rami communicantes from the corresponding sympathetic ganglion.
False: they belong to parasympathetic nerves
The borders of an intervertebral foramen are A. anteriorly; B. posteriorly; C. superiorly; D. inferiorly
anteriorly: IVD & adjacent part of vertebral bodies; posteriorly: synovial zygophophyseal joints; superiorly & inferiorly: vertebral notches of the pedicles of the adjoining vertebra
Name the structure, which are located w/in the intervertebral foramina.
mixed spinal nerve, spinal artery, plexus spinal vein & meningeal spinal nerve
Name the segments of the spinal cord which contain the preganglionic efferent fibers of the sympathetic nerve.
T1-T12 & L1-L2 / L3
T/F The meningeal nerves receive one or more communications from neighboring white ramus communicantes from a thoracic & upper lumbar sympatthetic ganglion.
false: grey, not white
Name all the possible targets, which are innervated by the meningeal nerve of the spinal nerve.
dura mater, wal of bv, periosteum, ligaments & IVD
The upper 3 cervical meningeal nerves are distributed to the cerebral dura mater of the ____________ cranial fossa.
Name 2 fxnal nerve fibers, which pass through the ventral root @ the T5 spinal cord.
1. sympathetic fiber, 2. preganglionic visceral efferent
Name 2 ligaments, which the meningeal nerve of the spinal nerve supplies j@ the L1 spinal cord.
posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum
Name the nerves, which are distributed to the cerebral dura mater of the posterior cranial fossa.
upper 3 cervical meningeal nerves
T/F The C2 dorsal ramus wind around the articular process.
false: all cervical dorsal ramus except C1 & C2
T/F The C1 dorsal ramus is smaller than the ventral ramus.
false: C1 dorsal ramus is larger than C1 ventral ramus
Name 4 muscles, which are innervated by the C1 dorsal ramus.
ractus major & minor, superior & inferior oblique capitis & semispinalis capitis
Name the nerve which emerges under the vertebral artery.
C1 emerges b/w vertebral A & posterior arch of C1
Name the 2 nerves, which supply the inferior oblique muscle.
Dorsal ramus C1 (suboccipital ), dorsal ramus C2 (greater occipital )
Name 3 nerves, which pierce the semispinalis capitis & trapezius to supply the skin of the occipital scalp.
medial branch of dorsal ramus of C2 (greater occipital n, medial branches of dorsal rami of C4 & C5
Name the nerves, which innervates the semispinalis cervicis & multifidus.
medial branches of dorsal rami of C4 & C5
Name the nerve, which innervates the levator costarum.
lower 6 medial branches of the thoracic dorsal rami
Name the nerves that receive the gray rami communicantes from the middle cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk.
C5 & C6
T/F The 8 cervical ventral ramus contributes the white ramus communicantes to the cervicothoracic ganglion.
The nerve to the phrenic nerve from the 5th cervical ventral ramus joins the phrenic nerve @ the front of _____________ muscle.
T/F The suprascapular nerve enters the supraspinous fossa through the scapular notch above the superior transverse scapular ligament.
Name the nerve which distributes the deep medial surface of the pectoralis major.
lateral pectoral nerve
Name the border of the quadrangular space through where the axillary nerve passes. A. superiorly; B. infferiorly; C. medially; D. laterally
superiorly: subscapularis; inferiorly: teres major; medially: long head of traiceps brachialii; laterally: surgical neck of humerus
Name the nerve which gives off the upper lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm.
axillary nerve gives posterior branch
Name the nerve which supplies the skin over the half of the anterior surface of the forearm.
Name the nerve which locates b/w 2 tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis & the flexor carpi radialis @ the proximal to the flexor retinaculum.
Name the nerve which innervates the flexor pollicis longus. ___________ of ___________
anterior interossious of median N (c8-t1)
Name the nerves which give off the articular nerve to the elbow joint.
musculocutaneous, radial & ulnar
Name the nerve which innervates the lateral 3-1/2 digits of the palmar surface.
common palmar digital branch of median n
The ulnar nerve lays medial/lateral side of the ulnar vessels @ the proximal end of the flexors retinaculum.
Name the nerve which innervates the palmaris brevis. _________ of ____________
dorsal branch of ulnar
Name the nerve which supplies the adductor pollicis. __________ of ___________
deep terminal branches of ulnar
The deep terminal branch of the ulnar nerve supplies following muscles, EXCEPT A. abductor digiti minimi; B. opponent digiti minimi; C. adductor pollicis; D. opponent pollicis
D: opponent pollicis (median nerve
The muscular branches of the radial nerve innervates following muscles, EXCEPT A. long head of the biceps brachii; B. medial head of teh triceps; C. anconeus; D. extensor carpi radialis brevis
The posterior interosseous nerve innervates the following fmuscles, EXCEPT A. extensor digitorum; B. extensor carpi ulnaris; C. abductor pollicis brevis; D. extensor indicus
C. abductor pollicis brevis:median
Winging the scappular is caused by the paralysis of the __________ nerve of ____________.
long thoracic n, c5-c7
Each of the thoracic ventral rami connects to the adjacent sympathetic ganglion thru the (grey/white) rami communicantes.
The grey ramus communicant joins to the ventral rami of the spinal nerve (proximal/distal) to the exit of the white ramus communicant.
Name the nerve which supplies the abdominal skin in the upper part of the infrasternal angle.
anterior branch of lateral cutaneous branch T7-t12 ventral ramus
Name the muscles which are innervated by 1 - 6 thoracic ventral rami
intercostalis, serratus posterior superior, transversus thoracis
Name the nerves which supply the skin over the scapular & latissimus dorsi
Posterior branches of lateral cutaneous branch t1-t6 ventral ramus