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What is the definition of "social contract"?

an agreement by which they gave up state of nature for an organized society

What are laws that govern human nature?

natural law

What are natural rights?

rights that belong to all humans at birth

What is the definition of "philosophy"?

the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence

What is the policy allowing businesses to operate with little or no government interference?


Successes in science convinced Europeans of the power of ___ ___.

Human reason

The enlightenment changed people's reasoning on ___, ___ and ___ problems.

social, political and economic

Who are physiocrats?

Thinkers who focus on economic reforms

What are salons? Who attended them?

Informal social gatherings attended by writers, artists, musicians, and philosophes (middle class)

Which city was considered to be the "heart of the Enlightenment?"


What is a term used for an absolute ruler who brings about social/political changes? Who are some examples?

Enlightened despot; Maria Theresa, Joseph II,, Frederick the Great (Frederick II)

Who was the leading American philosophe?

Benjamin Franklin

To restrict access to ideas and information is called...


Who headed a group of philosophers wrote the first enyclopedias?

Denis Diderot

Who was the leading architect during the Enlightenment?

Christopher Wren

What were the ideas of Baron de Montesquieu? What book did he write?

government should be split into 3 branches of government (check). "The Spirit of Laws"

Who advocated for free speech, targeted corrupt officials and hated inequality and injustice?


Who believed that governments should be formed to protect natural rights?

John Locke

Who believed that the free economic market should be allowed to regulate business activity?

Adam Smith

What were the ideas of Frenchman Rosseau? What book did he write?

people are born naturally good and peaceful, no need for rigid government and limitations on behavior. "The Social Contract"

Who thought that people were selfish and cruel, and that orderly society is necessary for a powerful government? What book did he write?

Thomas Hobbes, "Levithan"

What were the beliefs of Mary Wollstonecraft?

women should have equal rights as men, decide what is good for themselves

What effect did pamphlets, articles and newly written "Encyclopedia"s have to the people reading them?

They got more people to understand issues and know that a just society is necessary.

What were new types of art styles?

Baroque, rococo

Who were the main audiences at cultural events and as art subjects?

Middle class

Who were new musical composers and what were new musical trends?

Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, Mozart; ballets and operas (plays set to music)

What was a new type of literature that caught the interest of the middle class?


Who's lives mainly remained unchanged by the Enlightenment? Why?

peasants, because they could not access new Enlightened ideas

What lasting effect did the Enlightenment have for humanity?

Ideas of equality and reason make the way people think completely different. Government and lifestyles all change because ideas change.
Ideas of Enlightenment lead to French Revolution!

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