ECOLOGY

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

the study of interactions among organisms in the environment is...
ecology
an individual living thing
organism
a group of the same species that lives in one area
population
a group of different species that live together in one area
community
includes all the living organisms and other non-living things in a given area
ecosystem
portion of the Earth that supports life
biosphere
what is the term for living things (like...plants, animals, bacteria)
biotic
what is the term for non-living things (like...rocks, dirt, wind, climate)
abiotic
a species that has an unusually large effect on the ecosystem
keystone species
the variety of living things in an ecosystem
biodiversity
which biome has the most biodiversity?
tropical rain forest
a major region with similar ecosystems
biome
in most ecosystems, what is the major source of energy?
sun
what gets their energy from non-living resources (makes their own food) and always make up the base of every food chain
producers/autotrophs
auto-
self
a-
without, not, not
bio-
life
food making process that uses sunlight as an energy source
photosynthesis
food making process that uses chemicals as an energy source
chemosynthesis
organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once living resources
consumers/heterotrohs
consumer that eats only plants
herbivore
consumer that eats only animals
carnivore
consumer that eats plants and animals
omnivore
consumer that eats dead organic matter
detrivore
type of detrivore that breaks down and absorbs organic matter into simpler compounds
decomposer
what do the arrows represent in a food chain
energy flow
what happens to the flow of energy as it flows through a food chain
it decreases
consumers that primarily eat one specific organisms
specialist
consumers that have a varying diet
generalist
nourishment levels in a food chains
trophic levels
what always make up the first trophic level
producers
the first consumer above the producer in a food chain is called a herbivore, or a ___
primary consumers
in a food chain, the consumer that eats a herbivore is called a ___
secondary consumers
in a food chain, the carnivore is consumed by the ___
tertiary consumer
what model is a network of food chains
food web
what returns vital nutrients to the soil
decomposers
tree-->mice-->snake-->eagle

this food chain contains how many trophic levels
4
tree-->mice-->snake-->eagle

what organism is the secondary consumer in this food chain
snake
how much energy gets passed to the next trophic level in a food chain
10%
only 10% of the energy gets passed to the next trophic level in a food chain, what happens to the 90% that is lost
most is lost in the environment as heat, and some gets used by the organism
what is another name of the water cycle
hydrologic cycle
what are the parts of the water cycle
precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, condensation
which two biogeochemical cycles depend directly on photosynthesis
oxygen and carbon
fossil fuels are part of what cyle
carbon
what happens during the process of nitrogen fixation
bacteria convert nitrogen into ammonia
where does most of the phosphorous cycle take place
at and below ground
water vapor released by plants rises into the atmosphere is called ___
transpiration
plants, animals, and most other organisms need oxygen for cellular ______
respiration
in the oxygen cycle, plants release oxygen as a waste product during the process of __________
photosynthesis
in the carbon cycle, plants take in ____ from the air and convert it into glucose
carbon dioxide
the term biomass refers to the total...
dry mass of the organisms in a given area
what diagram shows how much energy is distributed among trophic levels in an ecosystem
energy pyramid
what diagram shows the number of total organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
numbers pyramid
all the environmental features in the area where an organism lives are known as
habitat
an organism's role in the the environment
niche
when two species compete for the same resources, their ecological niche may
split into two niches
two robbins eating worms on the same lawn is an example of ___
competition
one organisms capturing another organsims
predation
"living together"
symbiosis
symbiotic relationship where both organisms are benefitting
mutualism
symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits at the others expense
parasitism
symbiotic relationship where one organisms benefits and the other is unaffected
commensalism
growth due to a population facing limited resources
logistic
growth is a rapid population increase due to an abundance of resources
exponential
the maximum number of individuals in a population that the environment can support
carrying capacity
something that keeps the size of a population down
limiting factor
creation of a new community after a disturbance
succession
type of succession caused by that starts from barren rock and is started by a pioneer species
primary succession
the first organisms that live in a previously uninhabited area
pioneer species (typically lichens and some mosses)
type of succession that is started by remaining species (soil was left intact)
secondary succession
a stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process
climax community
which biome has warm temperatures, abundant precipitation all year, located near equator, and has high biodiversity
tropical rain forest
the uppermost layer of branches in rain forest trees is called ___
canopy
which biome includes tall grasses and scattered trees, is typically dry and has frequent fires
grassland
which biome has low amounts of precipiation and lots of the animals there are nocturnal
desert
which biome has four distinct seasons and trees that lose their leaves every fall
temperate deciduous forests
biome that is dominated by coniferous trees and has small amounts of precipitation
taiga
which biome has permafrost and only mosses and other low lying plants
tundra

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.