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Concepts Test 1: Disinfection and Sterilization (#13-23) cont.
Terms in this set (38)
Destruction of all microorganisms in or about an object, such as by steam (flowing or pressurized), chemical agents (alcohol, phenol, heavy metals, ethylene oxide gas), high- velocity electron bombardment, heat, or ultraviolet light radiation.
A resistant form of some species of bacteria
Destruction of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins or vectors by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents.
three degrees of disinfection
High Level, Intermediate Level, Low Level
High Level Disinfection
Removal of all vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Depending on the time of exposure the process could be considered sterilization or disinfection.
Intermediate Level Disinfection
Removal of all forms of vegetative bacteria but not the removal or destruction of all spores.
Low Level Disenfection
inactivate vegetative bacteria and certain viruses, do not destroy spores, tubercle bacilli (TB), or nonlipid viruses
Critical sterilization & disinfection
Penetrate mucous membranes or contact bone, the bloodstream, or other normally sterile tissues (of the mouth), heat sterilize between uses or use sterile single-use, disposable devices.
Semi-Critical sterilization & disinfection
Contact mucous membranes but do not penetrate soft tissue. Heat sterilize or high-level disinfect.
Non-critical sterilization & disinfection
Contact intact skin. Clean and disinfect using a low to intermediate level disinfectant.
Example of Critical Sterilization & Disinfection
dental instruments, scalpel blades, periodontal scalers, and surgical dental burs.
Example of Semi-Critical Sterilization & Disinfection
Dental mouth mirrors, amalgam condensers, and dental handpieces.
Example of Non-Critical Sterilization & Disinfection
X-ray heads, facebows, pulse oximeter, blood pressure cuff, light handle
The population of microorganisms inhabiting body surfaces of healthy conventional animals.
The interval between invasion of the body by an infecting organism and the appearance of the first sign or symptom it causes (latent period). In a disease vector, the period between entry of the pathogenic organism and the time at which the vector is capable of transmitting the disease to another human host.
Temporary interval during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to a susceptible host; may include, or overlap, the incubation period of a disease.
Being that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease & serves as a potential source of infection.
4 processing areas in the work area:
1) Receiving, cleaning, and decontamination
2) Preparation and packaging
properties of an ideal disinfectant
doesn't corrode or disintegrate instruments or materials
easy to use and odorless
residual effect on treated surface
what must the label state on chemical disinfectants?
Shelf Life: expiration date
Use Life: life expectancy once opened
Reuse Life: length of time a solution and be used/reused while being challenged with instruments coated with bioburden
chemical disinfectants must be _____ &_____ approved.
FDA & EPA
applied to all surfaces between patients
dental laboratory impressions/prostheses
disinfect prior to sending to lab
disinfect prior to delivery to patient
process for cleaning/packaging instruments
1) clinical use
2) instrument cleaning (thermal disinfector or ultrasonic)
3) rinse and dry
7) store package
sterilization monitoring: types of indicators?
1) Mechanical-measures time, temp, pressure by observing gauges
2) chemical (external and/or internal): sensitive chemicals change color to assess physical conditions (ex: time and temp)
3) biological: spore test; most valid method, assesses the sterilization process directly by killing known highly resistant microorganisms
how often is a spore test done?
once a week or every 40 hours
3 types of sterilization
1. auto claving
2. dry heat
3. unsaturated chemical vapor sterilization
what is auto claving sterilization?
steam under pressure
Used for wrapped/unwrapped critical & semicritical items not sensitive to heat and moisture; requires exposure to direct steam contact at specific temp & pressure for specific amt. of time
two types of auto claving sterilization
1) Gravity Displacement: Steam forces air out & penetrates cassettes or packaging
2)High-speed Prevacuum: Pump removes air from chamber; allows faster penetration of steam for sterilizing
advantages and disadvantages for auto claving sterilization
ADV: dependable & economical
DISADV: may corrode carbon steel (burs); not for oils or powders that are impervious to heat; autoclave can be overloaded resulting in cool air pockets and items not being sterilized
what is dry heat sterilization?
For materials that cannot be safely sterilized with moist heat (e.g., burs & certain ortho instruments)
advantages and disadvantages for dry heat sterilization
Advantages: low operating costs; noncorrosive
Disadvantages: Long process; some items are destroyed at such high temps (e.g., plastics, may destroy cutting edges)
advantages and disadvantages for unsaturated chemical-vapor sterilization?
Advantages: causes less corrosion of carbon steel instr (burs) & less corrosion than steam
Disadvantages: adequate ventilation is required as emits toxic fumes; solutions must be disposed of properly, cannot be used in small rooms; cannot be used for low-melting plastics, liquids, or heat-sensitive hand pieces
what is done for patient preparation?
procedural mouth rinse and tooth brushing
what is requires for every patient?
a pre-rinse and OHI
how long to you run the water through the air/water syringe at the beginning of the day?
how long to you run the water through the air/water syringe between patients?
when and how do you open closed sterilized packages?
in front of the patient with decontaminated hands
GLOVED HANDS DO NOT TOUCH OUTSIDE OF PACKAGING PRIOR TO TREATMENT
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