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Chapter 5: The structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Terms in this set (78)
A large molecule that is composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms.
A long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks.
A small building-block molecule.
Occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule.
A reaction that disassembles polymers to monomers which is the reverse of the dehydration reaction.
Include sugars and the polymers of sugar.
Polymers composed of many sugar building blocks.
Have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O
The location of the carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the carbon skeleton.
How are monosaccharide classified?
Serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules.
Formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.
The covalent bond between two monosaccharides.
The polymer of sugars that has storage and structural roles.
Sugar monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages
How are the structure and function of a polysaccharide determined?
A storage polysaccharide of plants that consists entirely of glucose monomers.
A storage polysaccharide in animals.
A polysaccharide that is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells.
Linkage of α glucose monomers
What shape are polymers with an α glucose?
Linkage of β glucose monomers
What shape are polymers with a β glucose?
A structural polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
The one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymers.
Fats, Phospholipids, and Steroids
What are the most biologically important lipids?
They consist mostly of hydrocarbons that formed nonpolar covalent bonds.
Why are lipids so hydrophobic?
Constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids.
A three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon.
Consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton.
Three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Have one or more double bonds.
What are saturated fatty acids at room temperature?
What are unsaturated fats at room temperature?
What is the major function of fats?
Where do humans and other mammals store their fat?
Two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to a glycerol
Where are phospholipids found in a cell?
Lipids that are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
An important steroid that is a component in animal cell membranes.
Account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells.
Structural Support, Storage, Transport, Cellular Communication, Movement, and Defense
What are the functions of protein?
A type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions.
Unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids.
A biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides.
Organic molecules with carboxyl and amino groups.
Side Chains/R Groups
How do amino acids differ in their properties?
How are amino acids linked?
A polymer of amino acids.
Sequence of Amino Acids
What determines a protein's three-dimensional structure?
What determines a protein's function?
The unique sequence of amino acids is the _____ structure.
Inherited Genetic Information
How is primary structure determined?
The structure that is found in most proteins, and consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain.
What are the coils and fold of secondary structure a result of?
β pleated sheet
α helix and β pleated sheet
What are the typical secondary structures?
Interactions between R groups
How is tertiary structure determined?
The level of a protein in which the peptide chain folds on top of itself.
Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions, and Van der Waals Interactions
What are the interaction between R groups in tertiary structure?
Strong covalent bonds that may reinforce a protein's tertiary structure.
Results when two or more polypeptide chains form one macromolecule.
Helps oxygen attach to blood cells.
Alterations in pH, Salt Concentration, Temperature, or Other Environmental Factors
What can affect protein structure?
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