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111 terms

ASTRONOMY

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the moon ___ falling but it is also moving _____, always ending in a _______ orbit
is/sideways/circle
the stars ____ falling but they always _____ us
are/miss
the stars collide _____
never
a spaceship must travel ____ miles from Earth to experience weightlessness because it can be on ____ there
100/orbit
if a cup of tea were placed on the surface of the moon it would ______
boil
the feeling of weightlessness in space is caused by the fact that the spaceship is ____ _____
falling freely
the apollo astronauts turned on their rocket engine for a ____ _____
few minutes
only a rocket can travel in space because there is no ____ or ____ there
air/land
there have been ____ spaceships have been sent to the stars
no
if you throw a rock as fast as ___ km/s without air resistance it will ____ the earth _____
8/circle/forever
according to keplers ____ law, the planets are orbiting in a _____ shape
first/ellipse
keplers 1st law (about orbit) applies to the ____, earth, ____, jupiter, an asteroid, and a comet. but not a ____ ____ _____
moon/venus/solar wind particle
_____ velocity is the speed needed to get an object on an _____ where it ____ returns
escape/orbit/never
shooting stars arrive in earths atmosphere at anywhere from ____-_____ km/s
10/100
a spaceship needs to move at _____ km/s in order to reach the moon
10
it normally takes a space ship ____ hours to orbit around the earth
1.5
the moon has ____ atmosphere because air molecules move _____ than the escape velocity
no/faster
if a spaceship is launched from the moon, the slowest speed it would need in order to leave the solar system is ____ km/s
17
the invention of the ____-_____ _____ made if possible to build rockets that speed was fast enough to orbit the earth
multi/stage/rocket
spaceships are extremely expensive because their ___ to ____ ratio is tiny
cargo/fuel
it would take ____ _____ (one way) to take a trip to Mars with minimal energy.
nine months
if you were going the fastest speed possible, ___ km/s it would still take _______ ______ to reach the closest star.
20/60,000 years
a spaceship will follow an _____ on its orbit to _____
ellipse/mars
a rocket engine _____ work on a flight to mars
doesnt
Copernicus teaching was the _____ world view that the ____ revolve around the ______
heliocentric/planets/sun
Copernicus _____ the first to say that the earth revolved around the sun, the idea was well known but only ____ believed it
wasnt/few
Copernicus' method explained the motion of the planets more ____ but not more ______
naturally/precisely
the ______ worldview is called that because it says that the center of the world is the ______
heliocentric/sun
Galileo didn't discover the telescope but he did _____ one after ____ discovered it
create/others
Galileo's most important contribution to astronomy was that he used a _____ to _____ the ______
telescope/watch/sky
Galileo's discoveries were the most important every made in astronomy because they prove that the _____ and the ______ are not ____ worlds
earth/sky/different
keplers _____ law states that the _____ of the orbit of the planets is an ______
first/shape/ellipse
kepler's ____ law states that the ____ move _____ when closer to the sun
second/planets/faster
kepler's ____ law states that a planets _____ from its star (a) is related to its period of _____ (T) and the mass of the star (M) so a(cubed)=MT(squared)
third/distance/revolution
Isaac _____ discovered the ____ of _____ _____
Newton/law/gravitational force
to us, the people in china are _____ _____, they aren't falling because ____ pulls them to the ground
upside down/gravity
without gravity, the moon would have _____ on a straight line, ______
escaped/sideways
there ____ a gravitational force between two people but it is very ______
is/tiny
most asteroids are located _____ the orbits of _____ and ______
between/mars/jupiter
venus is a _____ planet
terrestrial
saturn is a _____ planet
gas giant
an ____ is a large space rock
asteroid
gas giants are located ____ the ____ belt
outside/asteroid
Sedna is different from a large comet because it ____ goes close to the _____
never/sun
the ____ of a come consists of ____ that is more rarefied air
tail/gas
the _____ of a comet is made of _____
head/gas
_____ discovered the ____ moons of Jupiter
Galileo/4
pluto is made of ____
ice
____ ___ takes up the most space in the solar system
empty space
comets orbit around the ____
sun
an astronomical unit is the _____ from the ____ to _____
distance/sun/earth
a shooting star is as large as a ____ of _____
grain/dust
meteor showers have a _____ because meteors are arriving _____ to each other and they seem to diverge due to a _____
radiant/parallel/perspective
a _____ is a very large meteor
fireball
meteor showers consist of ____ or _____
ice/rock
meteors can be made of ____, stone, or ____ NOT _____
iron/ice/gas
____ meteors originate in the depth of a ____ that blew up
iron/planet
we have found _____ that originated in Mars, allowing us to believe that we have rock on Mars
meteorites
_____ are falling bodies burning in the atmosphere while ______ have reached the ground
meteors/meteorites
it takes a few ____ to see that a ____ is moving, and a few ____ to see a significant progress on its orbit
days/comet/weeks
Comet Halley is famous because it is the first comet to be ______ returning
periodically
_____ spend most of their time on the outskirts of the solar system on the outside of _______
comets/pluto
a ____ is a large piece of ice with rock frozen in it, also called a ______ ______
comet/dirty iceberg
the ____ and _____ of a comet are made of rarefied gas that is much _____ than what we would call a vacuum on earth
head/tail/thinner
after a ____ comet visits the sun a few thousand times its ice _____ and the ____ inside is _____
periodic/evaporates/dust/frozen
if a ___ hit the earth, there would be extensive _____ especially in that continent where it hit, but there would be no immediate _____ on all of earth
comet/damage/catastrophe
pluto looks like a ____ ____ in a good telescope
tiny dot
there are probably _____ or pluto-like planets but we know of about ______
hundreds/ten
____ are made of rock while _____ are made of ice
asteroids/comets
the solar system is _____ million years old
4,500
the planets formed from _____ material after the ____ was formed
leftover/sun
____ planets contain little amounts of hydrogen and helium because the ____ wind blew these materials out of the ____ solar system
terrestrial/solar/inner
the ____ formed when ____ was hit by another planet
moon/earth
Jupiter is so _____ because it is outside of the snowline where light ____ are frozen out
large/gases
___ and _____ are made of least modified matter, which resembles the "stuff" that the solar system was originally made of
comets/KBOs
KBOs are much ____ than gas giants because the ________ picked up most of the gas that was blown out from the inner solar system
smaller/gas giants
Jupiter is ____ because of the ____ in its _____
yellow/chemicals/clouds
Jupiter is shaped like a(n) _____ because of its _____ _______
egg/fast rotation
the giant ___ spot on jupiter is a ____ ____
red/giant storm
the stripes and bands of Jupiter are different colors because they are clouds of different _____, temperature, and _____ composition
height/chemical
the clouds of Jupiter are turned into regular patterns and parallel bands and stripes because of ____ _____
differential rotation
we know the conditions inside earth from studying ________
earthquakes
the ______ part of earth is a very thin ____ that floats ____ the hot and molten interior
solid/crust/over
the center of the earth is ___, about ____ degrees
hot/2000
there are no _____ on the moon because it is a small body and it has already cooled off enough to have a ____ _____
volcanoes/thick crust
the inside of the earth is ____ because it is still ______ and hasn't had enough time to completely _____
hot/cooling/cool
Venus doesn't have a ____ field because it ___ too _____
magnetic/rotates/slowly
Mars has no magnetic field and this causes _____ to reach down to its surface
radiation
the Van Allen belts are in ____ around _____
space/earth
____ and the Moon are similar because they are too _____ for a planet
Mercury/small
like the moon, the surface of ____ is covered with _____
mercury/craters
the biggest difference between the moon and mercury is that the ____ has many ______
moon/marea
_____, a terrestrial planet, has a surface with most signs of volcanic activity
Venus
Excluding Earth, _______ planet has moving tectonic plates
no
excluding earth, ____ planets has water on its surface
0
the substance of the moons of Jupiter are are known from the measurement of their ______
density
____ _____ is the heat that keeps the volcanic activity in the moons of Jupiter
tidal forces
the largest volcanic eruption in the solar system has been seen on
Io
the grooves and straight lines on Ganymeade and Europa are caused by ____ erupting from an underground _______
water/ocean
there are ____ worlds in the solar system that are known to possess liquid seas or lakes
2
____ ___ falls from they sky on Titan
liquid methane
_____ appears red because of the _____ rock on its surface
mars/oxidized
we _____ see canals on Mars
can't
there is no ____ in Mar's atmosphere. it has an atmosphere but there is no ______
oxygen/oxygen
____ ______ makes up most of mars' atmosphere
carbon dioxide
mars has _____ atmosphere because it doesn't have a _____ _____ to protect it
little/magnetic field
there are ____ permanent rivers on mars but sometimes _____ erupts from the surface
no/water
in a telescope you can see the ____ of venus, but no other detail
phases
____ is made of ____% carbon dioxide
venus/99
the clouds of venus are composed of ____ ____
sulfuric acid
the surface of venus is so hot because of the ______ ______
greenhouse effect