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Terms in this set (22)
Flu Signs & Symptoms
Fever, chills, sore throat, headache, cough, myalgias, rhinitis aka-nasal congestion (hallmark difference from stomach bug)
Flu vs Common Cold
symptoms are usually rapid and sudden
Otitis media & N/V
Nasal swab (within 4 days of illness onset) & S/Sx
Vaccinate "at risk" populations
Droplet isolation precautions
Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests (RIDT)
15 minutes or less used to identify presence of influenza A and influenza B antigens.
False negative results common
3-10 days provides specifics related to circulating strains and subtypes of viruses.
May see both done during influenza outbreaks.
testing done at public health agencies and research laboratories only.
How is influenza spread?
-through the air primarily when an infected individual coughs or sneezes.
-by touching the surfaces contaminated with influenza droplets and then touching ones eyes, mouth , or nose.
-incubation period is 1-4 days, however persons may be contagious the day before symptoms appear to 5-10 days after illness onset.
High Risk Individuals
- Children under 5, but especially children < 2 years old
- Adults age 65 yrs. And older
- Pregnant women
Other high risk individuals
Neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions
Chronic lung disease
Blood disorders (such as sickle cell disease)
Endocrine disorders (such as diabetes mellitus)
Weakened immune system due to disease or medication
People younger than 19 years of age who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy
People who are morbidly obese (Body Mass Index, or BMI, of 40 or greater)
an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus TIV or QIV) given intramuscularly
(PharmaJet Stratis 0.5ml Needle-free) for delivery of one particular flu vaccine (AFLURIA® by bioCSL Inc.) in people 18 through 64 years of age. A jet injector is a medical device used for vaccination that uses a high-pressure, narrow stream of fluid to penetrate the skin instead of a hypodermic needle.
nasal-spray flu vaccine
(sometimes referred to as LAIV for Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine or FluMist). Contains attenuated (weakened) live viruses, and is administered by nasal sprayer. Approved for use only among healthy people ages 2-49 years and are not pregnant.
Fluzone Intradermal Vaccine
for persons age 18-64. Uses ultra thin needle, prefilled syringe, single dose
What is the flu vaccine effectiveness dependent on?
a good match between the flu vaccine and circulating viruses
Contraindications to flu shot (TIV)
-A known anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity to eggs or other components (egg protein) found in the vaccine.
CDC has new guidelines for the vaccination of these individuals (Recombinant flu vaccine- Flublok)
-Acute moderate-severe illness, with or without fever.
-History of Guillan-Barre syndrome
Treatment is considered for 5 days or longer, chemoprophylaxis for prevention of outbreaks in long-term care settings & hospitals.
What antiviral drugs are recommended this flu season? (treatment or chemoprophylaxis)
-Tamiflu (oseltamivir) is available as a pill or liquid
-Relenza (zanamivir) is a powder that is inhaled.
Reduce signs and symptoms and duration but does NOT prevent the flu!
-Indications: treatment of uncomplicated influenza in children over the age of 1 year and adults who have had symptoms for less than 2 days.
-Action: believed to alter virus accumulation and decrease or prevent flu symptoms.
-Dose: 75 mg po bid x 5 days (adults).
-Adverse Reaction/Side Effects: seizures, abnormal behavior. Use cautiously in patients with renal impairment.
Healthcare Worker Flu Prevention Strategies
-Cover your cough
-Get enough sleep
-Wash your hands frequently
-Clean your work area, keyboard, phone and other shared equipment
-Stay away from crowds
-Wear PPE when caring for sick patients
-If you feel ill, stay home
-If you are ill, stay at least 6 feet away from others.
-Isolate yourself until fever is gone (<100).
-Wear mask in public.
-Call before going to Campus Health or Dr.'s office.