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a paid nonpersonal message communicated to a select audience through a mass medium

advertising agency

an independent firm that plansproduces, and places advertising for its clients


a middleman that expedites exchanges, represents a buyer or a seller, and often is hired permanently on a commission basis

automatic vending

the use of machines to dispense products

brand advertising

advertising that is used to sell a particular brand of product; same as selective-demand advertising


a middleman that specializes in a particular commodity, represents either a buyer or a seller, and is likely to be hired on a temporary basis

buying allowance

a temporary price reduction to resellers for purchasing specified quantities of a product

captioned photograph

a picture accompanied by a brief explanation


a firm that offers transportation services

catalog marketing

marketing in which an organization provides a catalog from which customers make selections and place orders by mail or telephone

category killer

a very large specialty store that concentrates on a single product line and competes on the basis of low prices and product availability

chain retailer

a company that operates more than one retail outlet

channel of distribution

a sequence of marketing organizations that directs a product from the producer to the ultimate user; same as marketing channel

community shopping center

a planned shopping center that includes one or two department stores and some specialty stores, along with convenience stores

consumer sales promotion method

a sales promotion method designed to attract consumers to particular retail stores and to motivate them to purchase certain new or established products

convenience store

a small food store that sells a limited variety of products but remains open well beyond normal business hours

cooperative advertising

an arrangement whereby a manufacturer agrees to pay a certain amount of the retailer's media cost for advertising the manufacturer's product


reduces the retail price of a particular item by a stated amount at the time of purchase

creative selling

selling products to new customers and increasing sales to present customers

department store

a retail store that (1) employs 25 or more persons and (2) sells at least home furnishings, appliances, family apparel, and household linens and dry goods, each in a different part of the store

direct marketing

the use of computers, telephones, and nonpersonal media to show products to customers, who can then purchase them by mail, telephone, or online

direct selling

the marketing of products to ultimate consumers through face-to-face sales presentations at home or in the workplace

direct-response marketing

marketing that occurs when a retailer advertises a product and makes it available through mail or telephone orders

discount store

a self-service general merchandise outlet that sells products at lower-than-usual prices

exclusive distribution

the use of only a single retail outlet for a product in a large geographic area

feature article

a piece (of up to 3,000 words) prepared by an organization for inclusion in a particular publication

frequent-user incentive

a program developed to reward customers who engage in repeat (frequent) purchases

full-service wholesaler

a middleman that performs the entire range of wholesaler functions

functional middleman

a middleman that helps in the transfer of ownership of products, but does not take title to the products

general merchandise wholesaler

a middleman that deals in a wide variety of products

independent retailer

a firm that operation only one retail outlet

institutional advertising

advertising designed to enhance a firm's image or reputation

integrated marketing communications

coordination of promotion efforts for maximum informational and persuasive impact on customers

intensive distribution

the use of all available outlets for a product

inventory management

the process of managing inventories in such a way as to minimize inventory costs, including both holding costs and potential stock-out costs

lifestyle shopping center

an open air environment shopping center with upscale chain specialty stores

limited-line wholesaler

a middleman that stocks only a few product lines, but carries numerous product items within each line

limited-service wholesaler

a middleman that assumes responsibility for a few wholesale services only

marketing channel

a sequence of marketing organizations that directs a product from the producer to the ultimate user; same as channel of distribution

marketing intermediary

a marketing organization that links a producer and user within a marketing channel; same as middleman

materials handling

the actual physical handling of goods, in warehousing as well as during transportation

merchant middleman

a middleman that actually takes title to products by buying them

merchant wholesaler

a middleman that purchases goods in large quantities and then sells them to other wholesalers or retailers and to institutional, farm, government, professional, or industrial users


a marketing organization that links a producer and user within a marketing channel; same as marketing intermediary

missionary salesperson

a salesperson—generally employed by a manufacturer—who visits retailers to persuade them to buy the manufacturer's products

neighborhood shopping center

a planned shopping center consisting of several small convenience and specialty stores

news release

a typed page of about 300 words provided by an organization to the media as a form of publicity

nonstore retailing

a type of retailing whereby consumers purchase products without visiting a store

off-price retailer

a store that buys manufacturers' seconds, overruns, returns, and off-season merchandise for resale to consumers at deep discounts

online retailing

presenting and selling products through computer connections

order getter

a salesperson who is responsible for selling a firm's products to new customers and increasing sales to present customers

order processing

activities involved in receiving and filling customers' purchase orders

order taker

a salesperson who handles repeat sales in ways that maintain positive relationships with customers

personal selling

personal communication aimed at informing customers and persuading them to buy a firm's products

physical distribution

all those activities concerned with the efficient movement of products from the producer to the ultimate user

point-of-purchase display

promotional material placed within a retail store


a gift that a producer offers the customer in return for buying its product

press conference

a meeting at which invited media personnel hear important news announcements and receive supplementary textual materials and photographs

primary-demand advertising

advertising whose purpose is to increase the demand for all brands of a product within a specific industry


communication about an organization and its products that is intended to inform, persuade, or remind target market members

promotion mix

the particular combination of promotion methods a firm uses to reach a target market

public relations

communication activities used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and various public groups, both internal and external


communication in news-story form about an organization, its products, or both


a return of part of the purchase price of a product

regional shopping center

a planned shopping center containing large department stores, numerous specialty stores, restaurants, movie theaters, and sometimes even hotels


a middleman that buys from producers or other middlemen and sells to consumers

sales promotion

the use of activities or materials as direct inducements to customers or salespersons

sales support personnel

employees who aid in selling but are more involved in locating prospects, educating customers, building goodwill for the firm, and providing follow-up service


a free product given to customers to encourage trial

selective distribution

the use of only a portion of the available outlets for a product in each geographic area

selective-demand advertising

advertising that is used to sell a particular brand of product; same as brand advertising

specialty-line wholesaler

a middleman that carries a select group of products within a single line


a large self-service store that sells primarily food and household products


a large retail store that carries not only food and nonfood products ordinarily found in supermarkets, but also additional product lines

supply-chain management

long-term partnership among channel members working together to create a distribution system that reduces inefficiencies, costs, and redundancies while creating a competitive advantage and satisfying customers

technical salesperson

a salesperson who assists a company's current customers in technical matters


the performance of marketing-related activities by telephone

television home shopping

selling in which products are displayed to television viewers, who can then order them by calling a toll-free number and paying by credit card

trade sales promotion method

a sales promotion method designed to encourage wholesalers and retailers to stock and actively promote a manufacturer's product

trade salesperson

a salesperson—generally employed by a food producer or processor—who assists customers in promoting products, especially in retail stores

trade show

an industry-wide exhibit at which many sellers display their products

traditional specialty store

a store that carries a narrow product mix with deep product lines

warehouse club

a large-scale members-only establishment that combines features of cash-and-carry wholesaling with discount retailing

warehouse showroom

a retail facility in a large, low-cost building with large on-premises inventories and minimal service


the set of activities involved in receiving and storing goods and preparing them for reshipment


a middleman that sells products to other firms

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