How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

329 terms

ALL APUSH Midterm Vocab Combined

from http://www.lcps.org/cms/lib4/VA01000195/Centricity/Domain/4773/apreview.pdf
STUDY
PLAY
Mesoamerica
Early civilization based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production. Cultures included the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Maya, and the Aztec.
Great Biological Exchange
- Europeans and Native Americans exchanged animals, foods, and clothing
Line of Demarcation
- Line drawn by Alexander VI; gave Brazil to Portugal and the rest of S. America to Spain
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal
Lost colony of Roanoke
- English settlement in the Virginia Colony organized by Sir Walter Raleigh; abandoned the settlement or disappeared.
Virginia Company
English joint stock companies chartered by James I with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America
Virginia House of Burgesses
Set-up the first representative government group in the American colonies. It was the elected lower house in the legislative assembly established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. Over time, the name came to represent the entire official legislative body of the Colony of Virginia
William Bradford
was an English leader of the Separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts; primary architect of the Mayflower Compact
Mayflower Compact
- first governing document of Plymouth Colony; written by Pilgrims; declared that they agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth
John Winthrop
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630; "City upon a hill"
"City on a hill"
John Winthrop's Puritan model society based on Christian principles
Salem witch trials
- Several accusations of witchcraft led to trials and hangings in Salem, Massachusetts; end to Winthrop's ideal society
Roger Williams
- He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Thomas Hooker
Puritan minister who led settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Pequot War
- Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed
King Phillip's War
was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675-1676. The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side known to the English as "King Philip."
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part. The uprising was a protest against Native American raids on the frontier.
New Amsterdam
a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became the city now known as New York City.
Society of Friends
- a Christian religious movement, whose members are known as Friends or Quakers. The roots of this movement lie in 17th century English dissenters. Stressed personal inspiration as the source of faith and all action.
Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
)- Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians. Led to the granting of Religious Freedom
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
Restoration Colonies
land grant in North America given by King Charles II of England, as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart Restoration; marked the resumption of English colonization of the Americas after a 30-year hiatus. Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of Carolina
Dominion of New England
The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
George Whitefield
- succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening
Leisler's Rebellion
militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York during Britain's "Glorious Revolution"; reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored
Albany Plan of Union
early attempt at forming a union of the colonies during the French and Indian War. Colonies rejected it because they didn't want to surrender their authority.
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father; respected in Europe; secured the French alliance that helped to make independence of the United States possible.
Treaty of Paris (1763)-
)- signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Antinomianism
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
Enumerated articles
Under the English navigation Acts, those commodities that could be shipped only to England or other English colonies; originally included sugar, tobacco, cotton, and indigo.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival movement during the 1730s and 1740s; its leaders were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards; religious pluralism was promoted by the idea that all Protestant denominations were legitimate.
Great Migration
Settlement of over twenty thousand Puritans in Massachusetts Bay and other parts of New England between 1630 and 1642.
Half-way Covenant
In 1662, Puritans permitted the baptized children of church members into a "half-way" membership in the congregation and allowed them to baptize their children; they still could not vote or take communion.
Headright system
Method of attracting settlers to Virginia; after 1618, it gave fifty acres of land to anyone who paid for their own passage or for that of any other settlers who might be sent or brought to the colony.
Indentured servants
individuals who sold their labor for a fixed number of years in return for passage to the colonies; usually young, unemployed men and could be sold.
Joint-stock company
The company sold shares of stock to finance the outfitting of overseas expeditions; colonies founded by joint-stock companies included Jamestown (Virginia Company) and New Amsterdam (Dutch West India Company.
Mercantilism
Economic policy that held that the strength of a nation is based on the amount of gold and silver it has; also, that the country needs a favorable balance of trade and that colonies exist for the good of the mother country as a source of raw materials and a market for manufactured goods
Middle passage
The sea route followed by slave traders from the west coast of Africa to the Western Hemisphere.
Proprietary colony
A colony founded as a grant of land by the king to an individual or group of individuals; Maryland (1634), Carolina (1663), and (1681).
Puritans
Dissenters who sought to "purify" the church of England from within and who initially populated much of New England.
Separatists
Those who wanted to break all connections with the Church of England as opposed to most Puritans who believed it was possible to reform the church; the Pilgrims were Separatists
Triangular trade
Trade pattern that developed in the colonies; New England shipped rum to the west coast of Africa in exchange for slaves that were sent to the West Indies for molasses that was sold in New England.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Native American uprising against the British because of mistreatment
Proclamation of 1763
reduced tensions with Native Americans as a result of Pontiac's Rebellion; forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians; outraged colonists
Paxton Boys
Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachians that wanted protection from Indian attacks; marched on Philadelphia; influenced the Regulator Movement
North and South Carolina Regulators
organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government
Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania
- essays written by John Dickinson; acknowledged Parliament's power but said that the colonies were sovereign in their internal affairs; taxes for raising revenue were unconstitutional
Samuel Adams-
revolutionary resistance leader who headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts; involved in the Committees of Correspondence, the First and Second Continental Congress, and the signing of the DofI
Sons of Liberty
- radical political organization for colonial independence that was formed after the Stamp Act; rioted and burned customs houses
Gaspee incident
protest of the enforcement of Navigation Acts, residents of Rhode Island boarded Gaspee (Brit ship) and sank it, no trial in US - sent to England
Boston Massacre
British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts and killed five Bostonians
circular letter
- letters sent between colonies to keep underground groups informed of events in other colonies
Committees of Correspondence
First established in Boston in 1772, the committees became a way for the colonies to state and communicate their grievances against Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, second governor of Virginia, and third president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Patrick Henry
- revolutionary orator, statesman, and a member of the House of Burgesses; introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act; "Give me liberty or give me death"
Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods in order to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts
Lexington & Concord
Militia and Royal infantry fought in Lexington and the colonial troops withdrew; Concord was suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry. Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops.
Ticonderoga
American troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British and gained 50 cannons; raised morale and made French join war
Olive Branch Petition
Pledge of loyalty to King George III but asked Britain to respect the rights/liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and remove British troops; George declared colonies in rebellion
Bunker Hill-
American post overlooking Boston allowed the Americans to contain General Gage and his troops and turn back British frontal assault; overrun when no more ammunition; strengthened American morale
Trenton and Princeton
British army settled for the winter; Washington crossed the Delaware river and successfully attacked on Christmas Eve; drove the British away when British reinforcements arrived
Oriskany
of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution; Loyalists and Native Americans fought against Patriots
Benedict Arnold
US general and traitor in the Revolution; plan to surrender West Point was foiled
Saratoga
British tried to split the colonies along the Hudson River, but failed to mobilize properly and surrendered; first great American victory and a turning point that brought French aid to the colonists
Treaty of Alliance (1778 )
created a defensive alliance between France and the U.S.
Savannah
British captured this place and the Americans and French allies unsuccessfully attempted to retake it; second bloodiest battle of the Revolution
Yorktown
British under Cornwallis surrendered the war after a siege by American and French troops
General Cornwallis-
Led British forces during the American Revolution and surrendered at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris (1783)-
Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War. The U.S. was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. Britain recognized the US' independence and outlined its borders
western land claims-
seven of the 13 original states had claims to areas in the West, and these "landed" states had a great potential advantage over the six "landless" states
Land Ordinance of 1785-.
Congress organized the distribution of Western land into townships, and the sale of land provided federal revenue
Northwest Ordinance
created five states north of the Ohio River that would be admitted to the Union when free inhabitants reached 60,000; slavery not allowed. Set a precedent for how states could join the Union.
Shays' Rebellion
Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's land and enacting debt collection during an economic recession; Boston army suppressed rebels
Robert Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister; His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
Salutary neglect
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II; relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureaucrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Committees of Correspondence
First established in Boston in 1772, the committees became a way for the colonies to state and communicate their grievances against Great Britain.
Critical Period
Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Direct tax
British-imposed tax directly on the colonies that was intended to raise revenue; the Stamp act was the first attempt by Parliament to impose this on the colonies.
Enlightenment
A European intellectual movement that stressed the use of human reason.
Indirect tax
A measure that ra ised revenue through the regulation of trade--the Sugar Act, for example.
Loyalists
Also known as Tories, the term refers to those Americans who remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolution.
Natural rights
Those rights that the Enlightenment (and Jefferson's Declaration) saw as inherent for all humans and that government is not justified in violating.
Non-importation agreements
A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.
Virtual representation
The British argument that the American colonies were represented in Parliament, since the members of Parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire.
Whig ideology
Idea that concentrated power leads to corruption and tyranny; emphasis on balanced government where legislatures check the power of the executive.
Writs of Assistance
General search warrants employed by Britain in an effort to prevent smuggling in the American colonies.
"No taxation without representation"
The assertion that Great Britain had no right to tax the American colonies as long as they did not have their own representatives in the British Parliament.
Virginia Plan
plan of government in which states representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote
Connecticut Compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
3/5 Compromise
- A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for
Federalists
- Led by Alexander Hamilton; believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing
Antifederalists
Opposed to a strong central government; saw undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution and insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. (Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and Patrick Henry)
Federalist Papers
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government; Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
Alexander Hamilton
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists, as the first Secretary of the Treasury, he established a federal bank; was mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr
John Jay
- United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court
James Madison
- 4th President of the United States, member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (first ten amendments
Judiciary Act of 1789
created the federal-court system
Department of War
- Executive department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the US Army
Department of State
executive department responsible for international relations of the United States
Department of Treasury
- The treasury of the United States federal government
Attorney General
head of the Justice Department and the chief law enforcement officer of the United States
Bank of the United States
- Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson thought it was un-constitutional. Nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Strict Construction
The principle that the national government is legally granted only those powers specifically delegated in the Constitution
protective tariff
a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition
Whiskey Rebellion
- farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
Impressment
- British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Citizen Genet
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England
Jay's Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Pinckney's Treaty
- established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
XYZ Affair
a diplomatic episode that soured relations between France and the United States and led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi War
John Adams
2nd president of US; Federalist. Involved in XYZ affair
Democratic-Republicans
platform was at first to keep federalist from creating Monarchy; beliefs - power lies in congress, hate debt, cut army, abolish excise tax, cut federal projects, strict constructionist view of government, wanted treaties approved by the house; supporters - farmers from South and West
Alien and Sedition Acts
- four laws passed by the Federalist Congress: Naturalization Act Alien Act, Alien Enemy Act, and Sedition Act
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
state had the right to declare a law unconstitutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Aaron Burr
United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson, he mortally wounded his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel and fled south (1756-1836)
Election of 1800-
Republican candidates Jefferson and Burr tie with 73 electoral votes each; goes to House of Representatives; Hamilton hated Burr more, went to House and got more votes for Jefferson; Burr later kills Hamilton in a duel. The tie led to the 12th Amendment.
Checks and Balances
System embodied in the Constitution through which the power of each branch of government is limited by the other; the President's authority to veto legislation and Congress's power to override that veto are examples.
Compact theory
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
Confederation
A political system in which the central government is relatively weak and member states retain considerable sovereignty.
Enumerated powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Factions
Political groups that agree on objectives and policies; the origins of political parties.
Loose construction
Constitution is broadly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possibly anticipate all future developments; relies on the idea of implied powers and the "necessary and proper" clause. Both views on how to interpret the Constitution came up during the debate on chartering the Bank of the United States in 1791.
Separation of powers
The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws.
States rights
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
Tariff
A tax on imports (also referred to a "duty), taxes on exports are banned by the Constitution. A "protective" tariff has rates high enough to discourage imports
Marbury v. Madison (1803
) First time an act of Congress is declared unconstitutional; established the principle of judicial review.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810
First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; contract clause of the Constitution overrode state law.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Affirmed federal control of interstate commerce under commerce clause of the Constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1801
created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices; goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
midnight judges
- The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
judicial review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
Lewis and Clark Expedition-
overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back
Embargo Act of 1807
- act issued by Jefferson that forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Non-Intercourse Act
law that allowed Americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Henry Clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states
John Calhoun
- First vice president during Jackson's presidency, staunchly pro-slavery vice-president, engineering the Compromise of 1850 and helping further split the nations
Nicholas Biddle
- president of the Bank of the United States; known for bribes and corruption
Daniel Webster
- Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850
Francis Scott Key
- wrote 'The Star-Spangled Banner'
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans; the War of 1812 had already ended
Treaty of Ghent
- Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed its complaints against the ruling Republican Party
Rush-Bagot Agreement
treaty that demilitarized the Great Lakes and the boundary between the U.S. and British North America
factory system
system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
National Road
- First national road building project funded by Congress
Erie Canal
- an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie
Adams-Onis Treaty
Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Noah Webster
United States lexicographer (1758-1843), American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Washington Irving
United States writer remembered for his stories (1783-1859), wrote Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, first American author recognized abroad
James Fenimore Cooper
- United States novelist noted for his stories of Indians and the frontier life
National-Republicans
- supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Trail of Tears-
- Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the journey.
spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Maysville Road veto
Jackson vetoed building a road in Kentucky; strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Tariff of Abominations
- Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Webster-Hayne debate
- a famous debate regarding protectionist tariffs
Independent Treasury Act
- In the wake of the Specie Circular and the Panic of 1837, President Van Buren proposed, and Congress passed this act. The system that was created took the federal government out of banking. All payments to the government were to be made in hard cash and it was to be stored in government vaults until needed.
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Corrupt bargain
Refers to the Corrupt bargain claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected President by the House of Representatives in 1824.
Embargo
An attempt to withhold good from export in order to influence the policies of the former purchasers.
Era of Good Feelings
Refers to the period after the War of 1812 during the presidency of James Monroe, when competition among political parties was at a low ebb.
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Internal improvements
Included roads, canals, railroads; essentially, an internal transportation network that would bind the country together.
Judicial review
The right of the Supreme Court to declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutional; the principle was established in Marbury v. Madison, but was original sketched out in Hamilton's essay #78 in The Federalist Papers.
Kitchen cabinet
Informal group of friends who advised Jackson during his administration. Jackson believed that the "official" Cabinet's main function was to carry out his orders
Missouri Compromise
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
Monroe Doctrine
a United States policy that sought to insulate the Western Hemisphere from European intervention.
Nullification
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Pet banks
term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in1836.
Spoils system
Essentially, political patronage; public offices went to political supporters during Jackson's presidency.
War Hawks
Those nationalist members of Congress who strongly supported war with Great Britain on the eve of the War of 1812; included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Whig Party
a national political coalition formed to oppose the Jacksonian Democrats
Cotton gin
a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Nat Turner's rebellion
a group of slaves in Virginia unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow planter families
American Colonization Society
bought land in Africa for free blacks to move to (Liberia)
Elias Howe
inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers
Irish potato famine
The potato crops in Ireland became diseased and the Irish starved. Set off the immigration to the U.S.
Know-Nothing party
a nativist political movement empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants. The party called for restrictions on immigration and on naturalized citizenship.
Wilmot Proviso
banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future; included the disputed lands in south Texas and New Mexico east of the Rio Grande.
Popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Free Soil party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty. Debated Lincoln for Democratic presidential nominee. Lost to Lincoln.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Fugitive Slave Law
laws that provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Treaty with Britain establishing the northeastern boundary of the U.S.
Mormons
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church
Brigham Young
American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the western United States; founder of Salt Lake City and the first governor of Utah Territory
Treaty of 1846
Treaty between the United States and Great Britain that set the boundary of the Oregon Territory
Texas independence
American slave owners revolted against the Mexican government when they banned slavery. This created disputes over the land's ownership.
Mexican cession
region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War; slavery issue dominated politics
Gadsden Purchase
the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States; It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
Edgar Allan Poe
- Romantic Movement writer known especially for his macabre poems, such as "The Raven"
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Romantic Movement (dark) novelist and short story writer; wrote the Scarlett Letter
Herman Melville
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery
Walt Whitman
American poet between Transcendentalism and realism
Dorothea Dix
nurse and activist for the poor insane; created the first generation of American mental asylums
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
Sarah Grimke
A woman who published a pamphlet arguing for equal rights of women called "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women". She also argued for equal education opportunities
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840; advocated for woman suffrage at the Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
In the spirit of the declaration of Independence declared that all men and women are created equal. One resolution demanded the ballot for women. This meeting launched the modern women's rights movement.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
Dred Scott decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Abolition
A moral crusade to immediately end the system of human slavery in the United States
Civil disobedience
intentionally breaking or defying the law to call attention to what is believed to be evil or injustice.
Freeport Doctrine
The position on slavery taken by Stephen Douglas during the debates with Lincoln in 1858. Slavery could not exist if local legislation did not accept it. Douglas refused to say whether he believed slavery was right or wrong.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Created two new territories with slavery decided by popular sovereignty; it effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise as it applied to slavery north of the Compromise line
Nativism
Response to the increased immigration in the 1840s, it reflected a fear that the United States was being taken over by foreigners. Nativism found a political expression in the American party, also known as the Know-Nothing party, which was founded in 1854 on a program of controlling immigration and requiring a longer naturalization period; the party was strongly anti-Catholic.
Popular sovereignty
Proposed by Senator Lewis Cass, it meant that the decision to permit slavery in a territory was up to the territorial legislature; it was incorporated into the Compromise of 1850 for New Mexico and Utah territories.
Romanticism
An intellectual movement that stressed emotion, sentiment, and individualism. A reaction to rationalism and the classical revival.
Transcendentalism
American expression of the Romantic movement that emphasized the limits of reason, individual freedom, and nature; best represented by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, the author of Walden and Civil Disobedience.
Bleeding Kansas
The virtual civil war that erupted in Kansas in 1856 between pro-slavery and free soilers as a consequence of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
"Fifty-four forty or fight"
Political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States. The Treaty of 1846 with Great Britain set the boundary at the forty-ninth parallel.
"Free soil"
The idea surfaced after the Mexican War that Congress had the authority to ban slavery in the newly acquired territories. It was embodied in the Wilmot Proviso. The advocates of "free soil" formed their own political party in 1848, and Martin Van Buren was their candidate for President.
Fort Sumter
Confederate bombardment and Union surrender that started the Civil War
Jefferson Davis
leader and president of the Confederacy during the Civil War
Anaconda Plan
Union strategy to blockade of the Southern ports and advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two
First Battle of Bull Run
first major land battle of the Civil War; Confederate victory
Antietam
first major battle in the Civil War to take place on Northern soil; bloodiest single-day battle in American history; tactical draw, but strategic Union victory
U. S. Grant
Union military leader during the Civil War; corrupt President after the war
Robert E. Lee
commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War
George McClellan
Union general; Peninsula Campaign to seize Richmond ended in failure, removed from command by President Lincoln
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederate general under Robert E. Lee
Shiloh
major western battle; very bloody; Confederate attack but Union victory
Vicksburg
final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign; Union (Grant) seized the city and gained control of the Mississippi River
Monitor
Union ironclad that fought in the Battle of Hampton Roads
Merrimac
Confederate Ironclad that fought in the Battle of Hampton Roads
Sherman's March to the Sea
General Sherman led a campaign of total war across Georgia, inflicting damage to Southern industry and civilian property
Gettysburg
Union victory &turning point of the Civil War; Lee invaded the North, but was defeated by Meade
Chancellorsville
Confederacy (Lee) defeated a Union army twice its size
Appomattox
Lee surrendered to Grant at this court house
Matthew Brady
Irish-American photographer who documented the American Civil War
Morrill Land Grant Act
allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges
Pacific Railroad Act
called for the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean
National Bank Act
established national charters for banks and was used to fund the Union; not effective
Wade-Davis Bill
program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by Radical Republicans; required Confederate states to take the Ironclad oath before re-admittance to the Union
John Wilkes Booth
assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre
Thirteenth Amendment
amendment that abolished slavery
Fourteenth Amendment
amendment that ensured rights to citizens on the state level; removed the three-fifths clause; ensured that the US would not pay Confederate debt; ensured loyalty of Confederate legislators
Fifteenth Amendment
amendment that ensures that race cannot be used as criteria for voting
Civil Rights Act of 1866
made everyone born in the U.S (previous slaves) full citizens
Andrew Johnson
President after Lincoln's assassination; presided over Civil War aftermath
Radical Republicans
opposed to slavery during the war, and after the war supported equal rights for freedmen
Freedmen's Bureau
aided former slaves through education, health care, and employment
Reconstruction Acts (1867)
statutes dealing with Confederate readmission that were passed after the Civil War; vetoed by Johnson, but overridden by Congress
o Created five military districts in the seceded states
o Required congressional approval for new state constitutions (which were required for Confederate states to rejoin the Union)
o Confederate states give voting rights to all men.
o All former Confederate states must ratify the 14th Amendment
tenant farms
southern farms in which blacks/poor whites would farm land owned by a landlord
Ku Klux Klan
tried to restore white supremacy during Radical Republican control of Reconstruction by threats and violence against blacks
Force Acts
helped protect the voting rights of African-Americans and limit the activities of the KKK
election of 1876
one of the most disputed presidential elections; electoral votes awarded to Hayes in exchange for withdrawal of troops from the south
Samuel Tilden
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876
Black codes
Passed by state legislatures in 1865-1866; granted former slaves right to marry, sue, testify in court, and hold property but with significant qualifications.
Border states
Slave states--Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri--that remained loyal to the Union; the secession of these states would have considerably strengthened the South.
Carpetbaggers
Derogatory term for Northern Republicans who were involved in Southern politics during Radical Reconstruction.
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes and other Republicans agreed that U. S. Troops would be withdrawn from the South, agreed to appoint a Southerner to the Cabinet, and pledged federal projects to the South in return for an end to Democratic opposition to official counting of the electoral votes for the disputed election of 1876.
Copperheads
Northern Democrats, also known as Peace Democrats, who opposed Lincoln's war policies and were concerned with the growth of presidential power. In the election of 1864, General George McClellan was nominated by the Democrats with their support.
Draft riots
Mob violence opposing conscription laws during the Civil War; the most violent occurred in New York City (July 1863).
Ex Parte Milligan (1866)
Supreme Court decision involving presidential war powers; civilians could not be tried in military courts in wartime when the federal courts were functioning.
Freedmen's Bureau
Agency created by Congress as the war ended to assist Civil War refugees and freed former slaves.
Ironclads
Wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War
Presidential Reconstruction
Put forward by Andrew Johnson, it included repeal of ordinances of secession, repudiation of Confederate debts, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. By the end of 1865, only Texas had failed to meet these terms.
Radical Reconstruction
Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Scalawags
Term used to describe Southern white Republicans who had opposed secession
Sharecropping
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South; received a small plot of land, seed, fertilizer, tools from the landlord who decided what and how much should be planted; landlord usually took half of the harvest.
"Ten-Percent Plan"
Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 1863) provided that new state government could be established in the South when ten percent of the qualified voters in 1860 took an oath of loyalty.
Comstock Lode
first major U.S. discovery of silver ore; mining camps thrived
Central Pacific Railroad
part of the first Transcontinental Railroad in North America (California to Utah)
Union Pacific Railroad
is the largest and oldest operating railroad network in the United States
Promontory Point
marks the point where the transcontinental railroad system was completed
Long drive
cowboys drove herds of cattle from Texas overland to railheads on the northern Plains
Joseph Glidden
American farmer who patented barbed wire
Great American Desert
the western part of the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains in North America
Sand Creek massacre
Colorado Territory militia attacked a Cheyenne/Arapaho village during the Indian wars
Battle of the Little Bighorn
(Custer's Last Stand) battle between Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the US Army; Indians won
Nez Perce
Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States
Chief Joseph
chief of the Nez Perce during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly move them to a reservation in Idaho; for his principled resistance to the removal, he is as a humanitarian and peacemaker
Helen Hunt Jackson
wrote Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern CA
Wounded Knee
the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States of America and of the Indian Wars; 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides
Jim Crow Laws
mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a "separate but equal" status
1883 Civil Rights Cases
ruled that Congress lacked the authority under Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Thomas Edison
inventor of the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and practical electric light bulb
John D. Rockefeller
founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it; created the trust
Standard Oil
predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company
Andrew Carnegie
founded Carnegie Steel Company; major industrialist
J. Pierpont Morgan
merged Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric; merged the Carnegie Steel Company and other steel/iron businesses to form the US Steel Corporation
Horatio Alger
wrote Ragged Dick
Horizontal & vertical combinations
ways of merging companies
Social Darwinism
applying the idea of natural selection to the human race
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies
National Labor Union
created by William H. Sylvis; endorsed the 8-hr-day movement, end of convict labor, establishment of a federal dept. of labor, banking reform, higher wages, and restricted immigration.
Knights of Labor
American mass labor organization; struggled and collapsed to the AFL
Terence Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor
labor union; more effective than Knights of Labor; used political tactics.
Samuel Gompers
founded the American Federation of Labor
Company town
a city in which much or all businesses are owned by a single company
Closed shop
form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to only hire union members, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed
The Grange
"Patrons of Husbandry"; organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being
Long vs. Short haul
railroad rates over short or long distances; rate discrimination
Munn v. Illinois
allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads (growth of federal government regulation)
Interstate Commerce Commission
had the power to investigate railroad activities; created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland
Subtreasury plan
would allow easier credit for agriculture, thus breaking the power of the centralized eastern banks over farmers in the rural South and West
William Jennings Bryan
democratic party nominee, lost to McKinley. Advocated trust-busting, free silver. He was a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, an opponent of Darwinism, and one of the most prominent leaders of populism.
Spoils system
a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters
Merit system
process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job
Greenback party
was an American political party that supported paper money
Pendleton Civil Service Act
established the United States Civil Service Commission; ended the spoils system
Grand Army of the Republic
organized advocacy group composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
instructed the Treasury to buy silver monthly and to issue Treasury notes equivalent to the cost of these purchases; slightly increased money supply and answered the money question
McKinley Tariff
raised tariff rates for imports and protected manufacturing
William Marcy Tweed
lead Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine
Social Gospel
movement that applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially justice, inequality, liquor, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, weak labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war
Salvation Army
attracted the poor with marching bands and lively preaching
YMCA
provided housing and recreation for country boys who had migrated to the city
Booker T. Washington
organized a black state vocational school for blacks to prove their economic value
W.E.B. Du Bois
American civil rights activist; wrote the Souls of Black Folk and demanded full racial equality
Haymarket Strike
strike in Chicago that turned violent killing 8 policemen and a number of civilians; Workers were striking for an 8 hour work day and better working conditions.
Homestead Strike
strike against the Carnegie Steel Company; workers lost and steel not unionized
Pullman Strike
employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages. Led by Eugene V. Debs, leader of the American Railway Union.
Dawes Act (1887)
Changed the reservation system by granting 160 acres and U. S. Citizenship to native
American heads of families who agreed to give up their tribal allegiance.
Political machine
A vote-gathering organization of politicians who loyally support a party boss and get the votes to support their party's candidates by fulfilling needs and providing services to constituents.
Mugwumps
Reform Republicans who didn't support James Blaine, the candidate in the election of 1884