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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (53)
"soul-lessens". Doctrine that says there is no permanent, underlying substance that can be called a soul. The individual is compounded of 5 factors that constantly change. Says that the notion of self is an illusion.
The doctrine of impermanence. Together with dukkah make up the basic characteristics of all phenomenal existence. This doctrine characterizes everything.
"one who is worthy". A perfect person who has achieved nirvana. They will not be reborn. The goal of every Buddhist is to achieve this state.
Buddhist word for meditation. Aims to clean the mind of impurities and disturbances. Cultivation of the mind in the sense of calling ones existence.
A temple that commemorates the grove where the Buddha found enlightenment. Before the temple was built Buddha meditated under a pipal tree in isolation. While he was under the tree he practiced a form of meditation that did not cause physical pain.
People who have qualified to enter Nirvana, but who, out of compassion for others, remain available to help others. These people helped spread Buddhism and attracted many people from India. They mainly spread the teachings of Buddha.
Book of the Dead
The original title of the work is "The Great Liberation upon Hearing in the Intermediate State". It is credited for bringing Buddism to Tibet. It is believed to be written by Padma Sambhava. It details the afterlife.
Siddhartha became known as the Buddha when he found enlightenment. He did this by meditating, without causing physical pain, under a pipal tree.
- long periods of great effort are necessary in order to complete the high qualification of this self-training
- not reserved only for chosen people or for supernatural beings
- develop and purify one's mind from all evil thoughts
Deer Park Sermon
- first sermon given by Buddha
- taught the Four Noble Truths of the existence of sufferingg
- mental concentration: a person uses to separate themselves from their thoughts and feelings in order to become fully aware
- one path to Nirvana
The Buddhist term for the suffering of humans and other beings. The Buddha's main purpose in life was to stop Dukkha and help others find Nirvana. One of the four noble truths is that all life is suffering.
The fourth Noble Truth. It is referred to as the path of deliverance.
Four Noble Truths
All life is suffering, suffering is caused by craving, the end of suffering is is getting rid of craving and gaspings, the method to overcome suffering is by following the Eightfold Path.
Stories of previous lives of the Buddha. It is used to teach monks.
a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention. It is the cornerstone in the development of Right Concentration. There are 9 Jhanas.
Karma is a Sanskrit word that means action. Things we choose to do or say or think set karma into motion. The law of karma is a law of cause and effect, a persons thoughts and deeds are followed eventually by deserved pleasure or pain. In Buddhism karma is primary psychological.
compassion, active sympathy, gentle affection and a willingness to bear the pain of others. Karuna is the motivating quality of all enlightened beings who are working to end suffering on Earth. It is one of the four sublime states.
succinct paradoxical statement or question used as a meditation discipline for novices, particularly in the Rinzai sect. The koan stories describe strange actions of medieval Chinese monks who in one way or another became "deeply enlightened." A problem used by zen Buddhists to reduce dependence on ordinary ways of thinking about self and universe.
It is synonymous with teacher or master. It is a rank in theocratic system of monks. It is the highest office in the political and spiritual hierarchy.
It is regarded as one of the most important and influential scriptures. It is a teaching of Shakayumani. The Key unique message is that buddhahood is inherent in all life and enlightenment is attainable for all.
- one of the major divisions of Buddhism (the other is Theravada); offers ways to release from suffering
- literally "Great Vehicle" in Sanskrit; one of the two main schools of thought that stresses meditation and assistance of the spiritual development of others
- The key teachings revolve around the bodhisattva (a person qualified to enter Nirvana, but who, out of compassion for others, remains available to help others and "lives in the Void")
- compassion is a primary religious emotion within Mahayana writings
- liberal and innovative form of Buddhism that Nirvana is "here and now" rather than a place in the afterlife
- prominent in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam; Mahayanists emphasize universal Buddhist enlightenment
- buddha of the future, or the last of the five earthly Buddhas
- until he enters this phenomena, he resides in his heavenly realm, "trusita"; when he returns he will deliver three sermons to those with whom he has a personal relationship
- appears in Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, but his figure is more developed in Mahayana cultures
- usually depicted with his feet on the ground, demonstrating his willingness to enter the world
- "circle" in Sanskrit; geometric pattern used in worship
- a sacred diagram that usually serves as an object of devotion in Buddhism, especially in secret rituals known as Tantric rituals
- schematic representation of the cosmos; various areas are seen as the abodes of bodhisattvas, buddhas, and deities
- basic shape consists of a point of intersection between two perpendicular lines, followed by concentric circles and other designs
- used in rituals and meditation: practitioners aim to realize within themselves the central force that sustains the universe
- can also be executed in less permanent ways, such as in powders, paintings, and drawings
- a special formula of words recited in worship
- these words and phrases are can be used to transmit important mysteries, such as that of Shingon, the True Word
- a word or formula chanted or sung as an incantation of prayer
- a way of worshiping to find the Truth
- Sanskrit word for "death"; Buddhist god/deity who tempts humans to take the path of evil
- the embodiment of evil in Buddhist legends
- the enemy of Buddha and his teachings along with Devadatta (Buddhist Judas)
- constantly tries to thwart the efforts of Buddha and his followers
- a symbol of the enticements of evil, as many subsequent Buddhist saints must engage in battle with Mara
- most famous appearance in Buddhist tradition is his attempts to persuade the Buddha to give up his quest for enlightenment just at the point when he is about to achieve it
- In Mahayana Buddhist thought, this refers to the seeming reality of samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth), which exists but lacks ultimate metaphysical reality and will eventually disappear
- Characteristic of samsara, but is not reality
- Desire for permanence of the self and worldly things
- Deceptive nature of the ego and its perception of the world of appearances and forms, which an unenlightened individual accepts as the only reality.
- Sanskrit term for "illusion"
-"middle" refers to neutral, upright, centered, and unbiased
- Two characteristics of Middle Path: Middle Path of Dependent Origination (creation and cessation) and Noble Eightfold Path (avoiding extremes)
- Emphasizes emptiness and detachment.
- Practiced by Buddha after he lived a life as a prince and an ascetic.
- "seals" symbolic hand gestures used in Buddhist worship as a way to Truth (along with mandalas and mantras)
- Buddha, Buddhist deities, and bodhisattvas assume specific mudras, each of which symbolizes something different.
- There are 5 central mudras for Buddha and bodhisattvas.
- evokes meaning and power, and can appear in rituals.
- Sanskrit for "blowing out" (blowing out the fire of craving and ceasing the cycle of samsara)
- In Theravada Buddhism, there exists nirvana (person has reached enlightenment but remains in the body while karma plays out and parinirvana (nirvana when one dies after becoming enlightened).
- Goal of Buddhism = end of suffering
- Individual goal in Theravada Buddhism, communal goal in Mahayana Buddhism
- Nirvana is a state of being rather than an absence or lack of being
- Sanskrit for "wisdom" one recognizes the truth in Buddha's teachings and can potentially help one reach nirvana along with morality and meditation (Theravada Buddhism)
- In Mahayana Buddhism, prajna and karuna compost the cardinal virtues and the "perfections"
- "Intuitive insight into the nature of all things" (Alles n.p.).
- Samutpada- the Buddhist teaching of Dependent Origination, no beginning or cause
- a circular way of looking at life which explains suffering and rebirth
- also called "wheel of becoming"; continues as long as we consider ourselves independent of the process
- monks followed all 10 precepts
- householders followed the first 5 and supported monks who followed all 10
- first 5: not taking life, not stealing, being chaste, not lying, not drinking intoxicants
- second 5: eating moderately, avoiding spectacles, not using flowers, perfume, or jewelry; using simple beads, accepting no gold or silver
- Hindu worship of a divinity, swami, guru, person, or being
- involves offerings (fruit, flowers, incense) and the recitation of mantras
- in temples a puja is performed throughout the day, bathing feeding and singing to the icon of the diety
- the highest form of concentration and meditation in yoga
- total realization of the self with no realization of the rest of the world
- the goal is to unite all consciousness and knowledge
- Hindu concept of the wheel of rebirth, or "journeying"
- People are reborn again and again until they reach perfection
- There is no beginning to the chain, but the end is achieved through enlightenment and nirvana
- Buddhist religious order that included monks, nuns, and laypeople
- The 5 ascetics were Buddha's first disciples, and therefore the first in the Sangha order.
- Everyone in the order became an arhat and achieved enlightenment.
- Sanskrit term; derived from śakya ("one who is capable") and muni ("sage").
- Because Siddhartha was from the Shakya clan, he was later known as Shakyamuni (sage of the Shakyas).
- Widely used in China and Japan.
- A prince born to King Suddhodanna and Queen Maya among the Shakyas of northern India.
- He grew up surrounded by luxury and sensual pleasures, but he was disturbed by the suffering of the common person.
- After discovering the way to accomplish the release of humans from suffering, he became known as the Buddha, the enlightened one, and as Shakyamuni, the sage of the Shakyas.
- Ethical conduct, including right speech, right action, and right livelihood.
- In Buddhist thought right speech means one should not lie; slander; be harsh, rude, or impolite; or gossip. Right action means not taking life, stealing, dealing dishonestly, or having improper sexual actions.
- In essence, ethical conduct means one should act morally.
- Right livelihood admonishes people to adopt a profession that will not cause harm to others.
- These precepts are interpreted differently in various cultural contexts.
- Five strands, similar to strands in a skein of yarn, that constitute the self.
- There is no permanent self to experience anything; only the appearance of a self is generated. Those who seek permanence of the self suffer, for no self exists.
- Form, sensation, perception, mental formation, and consciousness. None can exist in isolation.
- Father of Siddhartha Gautama
- A powerful lord, a Kshatriya, in the feudal system
- Tried to keep Siddhartha ignorant of human suffering, seeing his potential as a ruler
- When Siddhartha returned to his father's home, Suddhodana embraced his teachings.
- A Sanskrit word that translates to "happiness" or "pleasure."
- It depicts the Buddhist definition of happiness, of which there are multiple forms such as happiness of ownership or household happiness.
- Buddhists believe that humans are naturally pleasure seeking and derive happiness from both the senses and physical objects.
- Literally translates to "thirst"; the term that describes human craving.
- This is the desire to have pleasant experiences and to avoid unpleasant ones.
- Buddhists believe that this desire is self centered and destructive as it is based in ignorance.
- Appears as a female Buddha within Vajrayana Buddhism.
- She is called the "mother of liberation" and represents success and achievement.
- She is a tantric meditation deity used by Buddhists to develop certain qualities and understand particular teachings.
- A Pali and Sanskrit word usually thought to mean either "one who has thus gone" or "one who has thus come."
- It is an honorific title for Buddha, used oftentimes by him to describe his own self.
- It is supposed to illustrate the transitory nature of Buddha - that he is beyond all coming and going.
- A Pali term literally meaning "school of elder monks."
- It is a branch of Buddhism that utilizes the Pali Canon, Buddhism's oldest texts, at its doctrinal core.
- It is the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Myanmar.
- The three jewels are Buddha (usually regarded as the highest being), Dharma (the teachings of Buddha), and Sangha (the community of those who have achieved enlightenment).
- Through the process known as "taking refuge in", Buddhists focus on these three things.
- Taking refuge in the three jewels is said to make one an official Buddhist.
- the "three body" doctrine
- scripture regarding the three manifestations of Buddha, said to have manifested three times at the same time
- part of the mahayanna philosophy
- three aspects to his personality (Dharma- kaya, sambhoga- kaya, nirmana-kaya)
- translates to "diamond vehicle"
- partly secret school of Buddhism
- teaches and emphasizes the idea that Buddha is in nature
- enlightenment comes with internal, natural power and presence
- the wife of siddhartha, mother of rahula
- known as the chosen princess for prince siddhartha
- gives birth to Siddhartha's son the day he decides to leave
- symbol of human enticements and wifely love / devotion
- Japanese Buddhist meditation sect
- based on the practices of Indian Buddhism
- practices the idea that everyone is Buddha, but not everyone has realized their potential Buddhahood
- Everyone has a single identity that connects them to everything in the world.
- translates to "skill in means"
- use the variable means to communicate and act in order to achieve efficiency in your goals
- to act in all things with an orientation to enlighten other
- dedicating any merit for the means of universal enlightenment
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