cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. They include: structural analysis- word identification skill that focuses on word parts- prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). semantic- using background knowledege/ experience with word meanings. Syntactic- using word order and knowlege of language patterns. Graphophonic- using knowldege of letters and sounds.