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clusters of ideas about objects, places, and events.


the use of one word in place of another word.

narrative texts

those that relate a story or sequence of events

expository texts

texts that provide factual information and explanations.

Directed Reading Activity (DRA)

teacher activates and develops schemata by linking the topic of the text to students' own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamilar topic. (a teacher directed activity)

K-W-L teaching model

K- What I know. W- What I want to know. L- What I learned. Relies on metacognition.


awareness of mental contents and processes. If "cognition" refers to thinking, then "metacognition" refers to thinking about thinking.

literal comprehension

refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in a written passage. (main idea, sequence of events, knowlege of vocabulary)

inferential comprehension

understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)

evaluative comprehension

ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.


meanings of words and phrases


structure of a phrase or sentence.


rules for effective connunication in different contexts.

reading readiness skills

alphabetic knowledge

emergent literacy

childeren's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.

print awareness

understanding the nature of print, the function it serves, and the conventions governing its use. (Allows children to distinguish between words and other forms of representation.)

environmental print

written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.

choral reading

takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.

guided reading

teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.

fluent reading

ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression. (ability to make use of prosodic cues) (is a dimension of oral reading)


refers to the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm of language. (the meaning of a written sentence, punctuation)


patterns of pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences.

pre-reading stage

alphabetic and graphophonemic knowledge, may be in the process of learning word-analysis skills, but they don't yet have ability to read unfamiliar words.

initial reading stage

sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. (Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.)

fluency stage

Children become more familiar with written language, and their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of lerning more sight words.

reading to learn stage

attention is focused primarily on content rather than the act of reading itself.

repeated reading

Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.

oral recitation lessons (ORL)

kind of repeated reading activity exercise based on interactions between teacher and students.

partner reading

(paired reading) requires students to work in pairs and students take turns reading a passage.

sielnt reading

contributes to fluency by allowing children to familiarize themselves with key vocabulary, so that oral reading of the same passage can be based on a higher proportion of sight words. (SSR, Sustained Silent Reading or DEAR, Drop everything and read)

self-correction and feedback

contribute to greater fluency. (Important for Teachers to help students maintain positive attitude.)

content literacy

used to describe the ability to use written texts as sources of information about a given topic or area.

SQ3R method

is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studing content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.

picture graphs

illustrate quantities

bar graphs

use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities

line graphs

show changes in quantity and other variables over time

pie charts

show part-whole relationships

graphic organizer

visual representation of textual content.


cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.

running records

used to track students' reading progress

Independent Reading Level

student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly and shows more thatn 90% accuracy in response to comprehension questions.

Instrudctional Reading Level

student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the questions correctly.

Frustration Reading Level

student pronounces less than 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly.


suitable for the student who needs the tactile experience with the triangle.


provide tactile experience of creating right triangles. (a block of wood with rectangular array of pins. Pins are used to hold rubber bands or geobands in place. They are used to form triangles or other polygons.) (useful for demonsrating congurence and similarity.

visual discrimination

ability to compare and contrast objects

5 stages of learning geometry:

visualization-recognize and name figures; analysis- describe figures and objects; informal deduction- classification of figures and objects. (These are noticeable during elementary school.); deduction- involves writing proofs from definitions; rigor- work in several geometrical systems.


sliding motions


turning motions


flipping motions





similar figures

have same shape

congruent figures

have exactly the same size


occurs when perfect matching occurs

attribute blocks

ideal for working on congruence and similarity.

counting bars

illustrats congruence and similarity


tiling patterns, are repeating a shape in a systematic pattern in order to completely fill a space.

circle graphs, or pie charts

represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.

mathematical probability

based upon chance: the likelihood of an event occurring

historical probality

based upon data accumulation over time

A fractions is used to represent probability:

# of times the successful event occures/ # of attemps that wer made


average of the values


middle value in the set


value that occurs most frequently


found by subtracting the smallest value in the data set from the largest value in that set


data value that is far from the other values in that particular set


study of the material record of the past


Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.


Cabeza de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior


Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.


Mexico gains independence from Spain.


Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo-American colony, the Old Three Hundred


Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas


The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzales.


The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed


At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, im Bowie, William Travis


Santa Anna is routed by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto


Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas


The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic


Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state


The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas


The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time


In the compormise of 1850, Texas relinquishes territory and acquires its present shape


Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy


Texas rejoins the Union


The current Texas State Constitution is ratified


Oil is discoverd at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.


On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.


Along the Texas coast, lived in family groups and had a nomadic lifestyle.


lived in rock shelters, built houses that were relatively permanent in desert climate where they lived. Were farmers, but also fished and hunted


Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops,were Hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent- built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples , The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.


monadic buffalo hunters and gatherers who lived in central texas

Age of Exploration

The 15th & 16th centuries

Alonso Alvarez de pineda

sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the pacific ocean.


The Wright Brothers make the first powered flight


William DeForest invents the vacuum tube


Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile


KDKA-Pittsburgh become the first commerical radio station on air


Insulin is created by Canadian researchers


The first successful television transmission takes place in New York


Alexander Fleming dicovers penicillin


Wallace Carothers invents nylon


Radar is developed by Robert Watson- Watt


Significant oil fields are discoverd in Saudi Arabia


Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor

primary sources

information consist of actual records, first-hand accounts of events and experiences.

Secondary sources

information consist of descriptions and explanations that are created after a historical event has already taken place


the study of the earth and its inhabitants

physical geography

concerns the physical environments of the earth

cultural geography

focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.


branch of geology that concerns the structure of the earth's crust, as well as changes that take place in the crust over time as a result of folding and faulting.

plate tectonics

earth's crust consists of about 20 plates that drifts, collide, and separate over long periods of time.

continental drift

change in the positions of continents over long periods of time

sea-floor spreading

the creation and movement of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges


breaking down of physical material


breaking down and removal of physical material

accelerated erosion

constitues a major source of topographic change


branch of earth science that concerns climate, weather, and earth's atmosphere more generally.

six flags over Texas

refers to the fact that flags of six governments have flown over Texas. These are Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, The Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.

Mother of Texas

Jane Long- because she reputed to have been the first Anglo to bear a child in Texas.

Ma Ferguson

first of two women to serve as governor of Texas

Barbara Jordan

first African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.

outline maps

maps that contain outlines of geographic regions, such as states, without additional detail

relief maps

maps that contain raised features repreenting the topography of a region

puzzle maps

maps that the tecacher cuts into shapes for students to reassemble

topographic maps

maps that use different colors and symbols to represent various geographic characteristics


study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.


average of a set of continuous data


middle point in a set of continuous data


the most frequently observed number in a set of continuous data


name of the color


lightness or darkness of the color


brightness or dullness of the color


visual or actual feel of the surface


two-dimensional area difined by lines, colors, or values.


three-dimensional quality of objects: depth, height, and width


mark made by a tool moving across a surface


area that surrounds shapes and forms


how loud or soft music is played or sung


how fast or slow music is played or sung


tune of a song or piece


relates to the exact placement of a note on the staff


accompainment of a song


analogous to how the syllables in a sentence sound

health-related fitness

promote for the development of better health now and in the future






way put together

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