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304 terms

Texes EC-6 Generalist 191

STUDY
PLAY
schemata
clusters of ideas about objects, places, and events.
anaphora
the use of one word in place of another word.
narrative texts
those that relate a story or sequence of events
expository texts
texts that provide factual information and explanations.
Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
teacher activates and develops schemata by linking the topic of the text to students' own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamilar topic. (a teacher directed activity)
K-W-L teaching model
K- What I know. W- What I want to know. L- What I learned. Relies on metacognition.
metacognition
awareness of mental contents and processes. If "cognition" refers to thinking, then "metacognition" refers to thinking about thinking.
literal comprehension
refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in a written passage. (main idea, sequence of events, knowlege of vocabulary)
inferential comprehension
understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)
evaluative comprehension
ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.
semantic
meanings of words and phrases
syntax
structure of a phrase or sentence.
pragmatics
rules for effective connunication in different contexts.
reading readiness skills
alphabetic knowledge
emergent literacy
childeren's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.
print awareness
understanding the nature of print, the function it serves, and the conventions governing its use. (Allows children to distinguish between words and other forms of representation.)
environmental print
written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.
choral reading
takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.
guided reading
teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.
fluent reading
ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression. (ability to make use of prosodic cues) (is a dimension of oral reading)
prosody
refers to the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm of language. (the meaning of a written sentence, punctuation)
intonation
patterns of pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences.
pre-reading stage
alphabetic and graphophonemic knowledge, may be in the process of learning word-analysis skills, but they don't yet have ability to read unfamiliar words.
initial reading stage
sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. (Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.)
fluency stage
Children become more familiar with written language, and their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of lerning more sight words.
reading to learn stage
attention is focused primarily on content rather than the act of reading itself.
repeated reading
Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.
oral recitation lessons (ORL)
kind of repeated reading activity exercise based on interactions between teacher and students.
partner reading
(paired reading) requires students to work in pairs and students take turns reading a passage.
sielnt reading
contributes to fluency by allowing children to familiarize themselves with key vocabulary, so that oral reading of the same passage can be based on a higher proportion of sight words. (SSR, Sustained Silent Reading or DEAR, Drop everything and read)
self-correction and feedback
contribute to greater fluency. (Important for Teachers to help students maintain positive attitude.)
content literacy
used to describe the ability to use written texts as sources of information about a given topic or area.
SQ3R method
is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studing content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.
picture graphs
illustrate quantities
bar graphs
use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities
line graphs
show changes in quantity and other variables over time
pie charts
show part-whole relationships
graphic organizer
visual representation of textual content.
miscues
cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.
running records
used to track students' reading progress
Independent Reading Level
student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly and shows more thatn 90% accuracy in response to comprehension questions.
Instrudctional Reading Level
student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the questions correctly.
Frustration Reading Level
student pronounces less than 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly.
tangrams
suitable for the student who needs the tactile experience with the triangle.
geoboards
provide tactile experience of creating right triangles. (a block of wood with rectangular array of pins. Pins are used to hold rubber bands or geobands in place. They are used to form triangles or other polygons.) (useful for demonsrating congurence and similarity.
visual discrimination
ability to compare and contrast objects
5 stages of learning geometry:
visualization-recognize and name figures; analysis- describe figures and objects; informal deduction- classification of figures and objects. (These are noticeable during elementary school.); deduction- involves writing proofs from definitions; rigor- work in several geometrical systems.
translation
sliding motions
rotations
turning motions
reflections
flipping motions
dilations
expansions
contractions
reductions
similar figures
have same shape
congruent figures
have exactly the same size
symmetry
occurs when perfect matching occurs
attribute blocks
ideal for working on congruence and similarity.
counting bars
illustrats congruence and similarity
tessellations
tiling patterns, are repeating a shape in a systematic pattern in order to completely fill a space.
circle graphs, or pie charts
represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.
mathematical probability
based upon chance: the likelihood of an event occurring
historical probality
based upon data accumulation over time
A fractions is used to represent probability:
# of times the successful event occures/ # of attemps that wer made
mean
average of the values
median
middle value in the set
mode
value that occurs most frequently
range
found by subtracting the smallest value in the data set from the largest value in that set
outlier
data value that is far from the other values in that particular set
hsitory
study of the material record of the past
1519:
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.
1528:
Cabeza de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior
1682:
Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.
1821:
Mexico gains independence from Spain.
1821:
Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo-American colony, the Old Three Hundred
1830:
Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas
1835:
The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzales.
1836:
The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed
1836:
At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, im Bowie, William Travis
1836:
Santa Anna is routed by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto
1836:
Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas
1839:
The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic
1845:
Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state
1846:
The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas
1846:
The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time
1850:
In the compormise of 1850, Texas relinquishes territory and acquires its present shape
1861:
Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy
1870:
Texas rejoins the Union
1876:
The current Texas State Constitution is ratified
1901:
Oil is discoverd at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.
Coahuiltecans
On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.
Karankawas
Along the Texas coast, lived in family groups and had a nomadic lifestyle.
Trans-Pecos
lived in rock shelters, built houses that were relatively permanent in desert climate where they lived. Were farmers, but also fished and hunted
Caddos
Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops,were Hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent- built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples , The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.
Tonkawas
monadic buffalo hunters and gatherers who lived in central texas
Age of Exploration
The 15th & 16th centuries
Alonso Alvarez de pineda
sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the pacific ocean.
1903:
The Wright Brothers make the first powered flight
1906:
William DeForest invents the vacuum tube
1908:
Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile
1920:
KDKA-Pittsburgh become the first commerical radio station on air
1922:
Insulin is created by Canadian researchers
1927:
The first successful television transmission takes place in New York
1928:
Alexander Fleming dicovers penicillin
1932:
Wallace Carothers invents nylon
1935:
Radar is developed by Robert Watson- Watt
1936:
Significant oil fields are discoverd in Saudi Arabia
1947:
Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor
primary sources
information consist of actual records, first-hand accounts of events and experiences.
Secondary sources
information consist of descriptions and explanations that are created after a historical event has already taken place
Geography
the study of the earth and its inhabitants
physical geography
concerns the physical environments of the earth
cultural geography
focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.
tectonics
branch of geology that concerns the structure of the earth's crust, as well as changes that take place in the crust over time as a result of folding and faulting.
plate tectonics
earth's crust consists of about 20 plates that drifts, collide, and separate over long periods of time.
continental drift
change in the positions of continents over long periods of time
sea-floor spreading
the creation and movement of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges
weathering
breaking down of physical material
erosion
breaking down and removal of physical material
accelerated erosion
constitues a major source of topographic change
meteorology
branch of earth science that concerns climate, weather, and earth's atmosphere more generally.
six flags over Texas
refers to the fact that flags of six governments have flown over Texas. These are Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, The Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.
Mother of Texas
Jane Long- because she reputed to have been the first Anglo to bear a child in Texas.
Ma Ferguson
first of two women to serve as governor of Texas
Barbara Jordan
first African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.
outline maps
maps that contain outlines of geographic regions, such as states, without additional detail
relief maps
maps that contain raised features repreenting the topography of a region
puzzle maps
maps that the tecacher cuts into shapes for students to reassemble
topographic maps
maps that use different colors and symbols to represent various geographic characteristics
civics
study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.
mean
average of a set of continuous data
median
middle point in a set of continuous data
mode
the most frequently observed number in a set of continuous data
hue
name of the color
value
lightness or darkness of the color
intensity
brightness or dullness of the color
texture
visual or actual feel of the surface
shape
two-dimensional area difined by lines, colors, or values.
form
three-dimensional quality of objects: depth, height, and width
line
mark made by a tool moving across a surface
space
area that surrounds shapes and forms
dynamics
how loud or soft music is played or sung
tempo
how fast or slow music is played or sung
melody
tune of a song or piece
pitch
relates to the exact placement of a note on the staff
haromny
accompainment of a song
rhythm
analogous to how the syllables in a sentence sound
health-related fitness
promote for the development of better health now and in the future
phonemes
sounds
semantics
meaning
syntax
way put together
pragmatics
how are you putting it together? fuctioning to solve a problem
phonics
associating letters w/ sounds
TPRI
Texas primary reading inventory (2 or 3 times a year)
diagraph "The H brothers"
sh- quiet brother, wh- whisler brother, ch- train brother, th-nasty brother
dipthongs
two vowels to make another sound, oe in "shoe"
First Spanish missions were established to?
Strenghten Spains claim
phoneme
smallest unit of sound
receptive language
ability to understand what is being said
morphemes
samllest meaningful components of words
one meter is equal to
100cm
one inch is equal to
2.54cm
Anna Mary "Grandma" Moses
American artist
Helen Keller
American writer
Salvador Dali
Spanish surrealist painter
Pablo Picasso
Spanish painter and sculptor
Inquiry teaching
when teachers ask and then help students answer questions by propsing hypotheses, gathering and evaluating data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method.
phoneme manipulation
working with phonemes in words; includes working with onsets and rimes, deleting phonemes from words, adding phonemes to words, substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word, blending phonemes to make words, and segmenting words into phonemes.
blending
combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, then combining syllables to make words.
segmenting
breaking words into individual phonemes, breaking words into syllables, or breaking syllables into onsets and rimes.
The main feature of a systematic and explicit phonics program is:
the direct teaching of a set of leeter-sound relationships in a clearly defined sequence.
Readers' Theatre
a reading activity in which students rehearse and perform a play whose script is derived from a dialogue- rich book; promotes reading fluency and cooperative interaction with peers.
A balanced reading program consists of...
explicit, systematic phonics instruction with meaningful, connected reading of informative, engaging text. It includes five main areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text domprehension.
Alphabetic knowlege
knowledge of letter names and shapes; acquired in a sequence that begins with letter names, then letter shapes, and finally letter sounds. Instruction should be informal, but planned, and should include activities in which children have many opportunities to see, play with, and compare letters and learn to identify, name and write both upper case and lower case versions of the letters.
Phonological awareness
an awareness of an the ability to manipulate the sounds of sponken words; it is a broad tern that includes indentifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
Alphabetic principle
an understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
phonemes
the separable, individual sounds in a word. A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in speech; e.g., in the word cat, there are 3 phonems: /k/, /a/, /t/.
graphemes:
the letters that spell the sounds in a word; e.g., in the word cat, the sound /k/ is represented by the grapheme (letter) c.
Onset- Rime-
An onset is the initial consonant(s) sound of a syllable, and a rime is the remaining set of phonemes in the syllable; e.g., in sat, the onset is /s/ and the rime is /at/.
Effective sequence for introducing children to phonemes
1. phoneme comparison in the following order: beginning, ending, and middle sounds 2. Phoneme blending 3. Linking letters 4. Manipulating phoneses through deletion, addition, substitution 5. Phoneme segmentation
Early blending activities should use words that begin with....
continuous consonants (e.g., f, l, m, r, s) because these sounds are easy to hear and can be blended without distortion. The children should "stretch out" and connect the sounds in the word (e.g., ssssaaaatttt, rather than /s/--/a/--/t/).
Two best predictors of later success in reading are...
phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge.
Directed reading- Thinking activity (DRTA)
A guided reading activity in which the teacher breaks the text into shorter segments, and next facilitates a discussion on the key concepts related to the text tiopic an thereafter leads the student in predicting, reading silently to confirm predicitons, discussing to refine and clarify predictions; and then formulating new predictions about the remainder of the text; this process is repeated until the reading of the text is completed.
Phonemic awareness:
the ability ot notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. (Focuses on sounds of language, not meaning)
Phonics
refers to the sounds that letters represent and how these sounds and letters combine to form words.
Phonics Instruction
the systematic, exlicit presentation of sound-letter relationships; for children to benfit from it they need phonemic awareness.
decoding
the process of tranlating written words using letter-sound correspondence and blending the sounds into words
Automaticity
accurate, speedy word recognition; is necessary, but not sufficient, for fluency development.
Morpheme
the smallest unit of meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller units without losing its meaning. Sopme morphemes can stand alone like the words, a, dog, or cat; others cannot such as the prefix re or the suffix ly.
Affix
a prefix or suffix
Consonant diagraph
constist of two consonants that together represent one sound- like the ph sound in the word digraph.
consonant blend
constists of two or more consonants sonded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc.....
decodable text
text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain enough high-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.
sight words
words children identify quickly, accurately, and effortlessly.
Irregular/hig-frequency words
words that appear often in printed English (e.g., a, the, in, to, no, you, for), but are not readily decodable in the early stages of reading instruction.
Vowel digraph
consists of two vowels that together represent one sound- like the oa in boart tht makes the long o sound.
diphthong
a vowel pain in which the sound glides from one vowel to the other- like oi, oy, ou, and ow in foil, boy, out, and cow.
Think-Aloud
A modeling activity in which the teacher verbalizes the teacher's thoughts while reading; used to model ways in which skilled readers make predictions, use visulization, related prior knowledge, and moitor and self-correct their comprehensions.
Cloze Procedure
An assessment method used to determind readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces.
Leveled Books
Books that have been sorted according to level of difficulty so that children and teachers can select books at the child's appropriate reading level.
The role of phonemic awareness in emergent literacy is
to prepare students to match speech sounds with letters in written words.
Graphophonic Cues
cues based on letter-sound correspondence that help readers decode text and determin its meaning. (When readers are using letter sounds and thier poistion in word sto help decode a word.)
When a student attempts to read a word in a sentence and asks the teachers, "Is that right?" The teacher's best response is-
to ask the student to reread the sentence and see whether the word makes sense.
cueing systems
cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. They include: structural analysis- word identification skill that focuses on word parts- prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). semantic- using background knowledege/ experience with word meanings. Syntactic- using word order and knowlege of language patterns. Graphophonic- using knowldege of letters and sounds.
Context clues are
clues to the meaning of a word contained in the text that surround it. These clues include definitions, examples, and restatements. Teaching students strategies for identifying and using context clues is an important technique for vocabulary development.
Reading fluency includes...
a combinabtion of accuracy and rate; developed by reading and rereading a large number of stories and informational text that are at an apporpriate reading level.
Comprehension
getting meaning from written text
comprehension strategies of skilled readers
activating and using background knowledge, generating and asking questions, making inferences, predicting, summarizing, visualizing
Reading levels for text material
frustrational- is able to read less than 90% of words correctly: instructional- can read/understand between 90-95% of text; independent- reads/understands at least 95-100% of text.
steps in the writing process
1. prewriting- strategies such as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs to generate ideas and plans to determind audience and purpose; 2. draft- develop by organizing ideas into paragraphas to suit the audience and purpose 3. revise- draft for coherence, progression, and logical support of ideas by adding, elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearraging text; 4. edit- drafts to ensure standard usage, varied senence structure, and appropriate word choice; 5. publishing- use available technology to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing final product
expressive language skills
speaking and writing
receptive language skills
listening and reading
predictable/pattern books
fiction; plots are simple, fast- paced, predictable
folklore
the stongs, stories, myths, and proverbs of people or "folk" as handed down by word of mouth
folktales
fiction; stories are not intended to be accepted as ture; larger-than-life characters adn very unusual happenings
tall tale
humorous, exaggerated story with characters who do unbelievable things
fable
fiction; short brief stories that teach a lesson or moral.
myth
fiction; stories seen as true in the culture
legend
fiction; plots center around adventures of heroic figures.
Reading to students in a text that is beyond their independent reading level is a good practice because
is exposes students to new vocabulary and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
realistic fiction
fiction; story that can actually happen and is true to life
historical fiction
fiction; based on real historical events
informational books/articles
nonfiction; contains factual information about a specific subject.
biography/autobiography
nonfiction; contains factual information about a real person
books of true experience
nonfiction; true stories aobut real events from a person's life or parts of his/her life
mystery
fiction; plots are fast-paced and revolve around a suspenseful crime or mysterious happening.
How can a teacher best identify a student's word identification stratategies?
Ask the student to explain how he/she figured out the word.
Miscue
a mistake in reading written words such as saying the wrong word, leaving out a word, repeating a word, inserting a word.
What are the advantages of using a basal program?
Basal books are controlled in their vocabulary and sentence structure
How can a teacher help students learn the importance of punctuation?
Have them read a passage in which punctuation has been omitted.
An effect way to promote the oral develpment of a 3-year-old preschooler is to...
verbally label adn describe events in the child's world.
What word identification strategies would help a child understand and pronounce correctly the words read, wind, and in a reading passage?
semantic and syntactic cues
drama
fictional play; plot is carried by the dialogue.
Ballad
narrative poem (tells a story) set to music
sonnet
poem consiting of 14 lines with a formal rhyming scheme
lyric poem
rhythmic and melodic poem
acrostic poem
a poem where the first letter of each line spells a word
diamante
a seven-lined poem set up in a diamond shape
quatrain
poem consiting of four lines of verse
cinquain
a short, unrhymed poem consiting of twenty-two syllables distributed as 2,4, 6, 8, 2 in five lines.
limerick
a rhymed humorous, nonsense poem of five lines with last line ending in a suprise twist; highly controlled. Lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme.; Lines 3 and 4 rhyme
free verse
poetry that lacks rhyme and structured meter
haiku
a unrhymed japanese verse consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables or 17 sylllables in all.
shape poetry
peom that has the shape of its subject.
expository writing
a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.
literary elements:
character, plot, setting, theme, point of view, tone, style.
simile
figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike thinks, usually with the words like or as
metaphor
figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between tow relatively unlike things using a form of be
alliteration
repeated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words; e.g., big, blue bear
onomatopoeia
the use of words that mimic sounds; e.g., pop!
flat character
not fully developed; we only know one side of the character
round character
fully developed, with many traits--bad and good-- shown in the story
The most common type of narrative order in children's books is...
chronological; the events are told in the order they happen
Preschool children's oral language development is best fostered by...
providing the children with opportunities to communicate with their peers and with adults in a wide range of contexts.
SSR (Sustained silent Reading)
a reading activity in which a block of time, typically 15-30 minutes, is allotted for students to engage in uninterrupted silent reading for pleasure.
Analyzing what an unfamiliar words' placement in a sentence suggest about the meaning of the word is an example of....
using syntactic clues.
When brainstorming potential topics for writing assignments, students should be mindful that...
no suggestion or statement by a student should be criticized as wrong or inappropriate.
guided reading
instruction that supports and extend the reading process
shared reading
a modeling strategy in which the teacher reads a story and the children join in.
One of the easies phonemic awareness tasks for young children is...
the ability to identify the initial sound of a word, such as the /d/ sound in dog.
What graphic organizer is best to use for literary fiction?
story map or story tree.
A student's has satisfactory decoding skills, but the student has weak comprehension when reading. What should the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student how to apply various comprehension strategies as the student reads.
A student has comprehension difficulty with content area reading. What shoudl the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student about the parts and format of various nonfiction texts and the specialized terminology and language the texts use.
To promote a preschoolers's understanding of the connection between spoken and written language
have the child tell a story and watch as the teacher writes down what the child says.
A most effective informal reading assessment to check students' understanding of a reading passage is to-
have the student stalk in their own words about what they have read.
A child's ability to point to words during th intitial stages of reading indicates-
the child's development of an awareness of words and of the correspondence between written and spoken language.
To help preshcoolsers develop an understanding that print has meaning-
have the sutdents "write" messages and draw pictures on holiday cards.
To help ESL students begin to develop a sight vocabulary-
display high frequency words and label objects in the classroom
.To help young children hear, and pronounce, all the sounds in a new word...
have children clap the syllables as they hear, and pronounce, them.
To help children understand that words are made up of individual sounds that can be separted and counted use....
auditory cues (e.g., clapping the syllables) and viual cues (e.g., Elkonin boxes, counters, chiops, blocks, etc.) to mark the syllables.
Invented or temporary spelling
helps to increas phonemic awareness and increases knowlege of spelling patterns.
Talk-aloud activity
the teacher ask questions to guide students through a series of steps they must follow to complete a task.
think-aloud activity
the teacher shares with students the thinking process that he/she goes through to complete a task.
For helping preshcool children listen attentively
establish a cuing system that signals that its time to listen and use it routinely.
To promote children's receptive language development
have frequent conversations with them- both individually andin gorups- about topics and activities of personal interest to them.
When a teacher read aloud expressively, modifying his/her voice to convey story elements this...
models good reading and also promotes children's receptive language development.
Children learn letter shapes by...
playing with blocks, plastic letters, and alphabet blocks.
big books
Large, oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.
running record
a tool for scoring and analyzing a student's reading ability.
word families
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
spelling patterns
patterns of letters or sounds in words that constitute a word family, for example, -an as in can, man, fan.
A third grade teacher make a practice of reading aloud to students from hig-interest books that are above the students' independent reading level. Why do this?
to stimulate students' interest in literature and to introduce new vocabulary words and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
Having first graders write simple words at the same time they are first learning to recognize words in print is most likely to promote their reading development by-
reinforcing their knowledge of the alphabetic principle.
To best asses a preschoolers understanding of concepts of print?
Ask the child to "read" a book while the teacher watches and listens.
A fourth grader who reads at the seventh grade level often seems bored and unchallenged. What would be most appropriate for the teacher to do to promote this student's reading development?
Help the student find books to read that are of high personal interest.
A fourth grade teacher asks a paraprofessional to lead a small-group discussion of a story students have read. To ensure the likely success of this activity, the teacher should-
provide the paraprofessional with a set of questions to help promote students' comprehension of the story.
A fourth grader demonstrates good decoding skills when reading leveled word lists, but often makes miscues and rarely self-corrects when reading text passages. To help this student learn to self-correct, the teacher should-
Encourage the student to think about whether each sentence makes sense as it is read.
When discussing reading issues with parents/guardians teachers should-
use nontechnical terms since the use of professional jargon can create barriers to communication.
In evaluating the suitability of children's books for use as elementary classroom reading material, what is most important to consider first?
wheter classroom use of these reading materials will address the grade level reading TEKS.
An appropriate activity to imporve first-graders' listening comprehension skills is-
to have them follow short (3-step) directions presented orally.
How long should phonics be taught?
According to the National Reading Panel, approximately two years is sufficient in the primary grades.
Inferential comprehension
being able to draw conclusion by reading "between the lines"
literal comprehension
understanding that written words of a text
Organizational patterns:
spatial, sequence, cause and effect, comparison and contrast
spatial
organized by actual location in space
sequence
organized in numerical or chronological order.
compariosn/contrast
explains how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different
cause and effect
lists one or more cuases and the resulting effect or effects
phonological awareness
an awareness of and the ability to manipulate the sounds of spoken words.
Shared reading
reading aloud to children and talking about the books and stories
Graphophonemic Knowledge
letter recognition and letter-sound correspondence.
Fantasy/science fiction
fiction; plots contain some elements that could not happen in the world as we know it today
One way to help a child that is having trouble with letter recognition is-
to have the child use his/her finger to trace a letter that the teacher has made from textured material and say the letter name while tracing.
Literacy develpment instruction for English language learners should...
value and build upon children's home languages.
Phonemic awareness
identifying and manipulating the individual sounds in spoken words.