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A plant cell has a __________ __________, which allows substances to enter into and exit the cell.
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which provides structure and support for the cell.
A plant cell wall is made up of a substance called __________, which is a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar.
Most plant cells have a large, membrane-bound structure called the central __________ that takes up most of the space inside of the cell.
The __________ plays an important role in regulating the water content inside of a plant cell.
Plants have a waxy covering on their roots, stems, and leaves called a __________ that slows down the loss of water in plants.
A waxy, protective layer secreted by the upper epidermis in plants is called the __________.
In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water and dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the roots.
__________ plants have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plants.
__________ plants do not have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant.
All plants have a genus species name developed by a man named __________ __________.
Instead of roots, nonvascular plants have thread-like structures called __________ that help to anchor the plant to a surface.
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through __________ __________ and cell walls.
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through cell membranes and __________ __________.
In the ninth centruy, __________ were thought to be useful in treating diseases of the liver.
Most __________ are less than 2.5 centimeters in diameters and have a flattened body like liverworts.
The plant cells of hornworts are unique because they have only one large __________ in each cell.
__________ get their name from their spore-producing structures, which look like tiny horns of cattle.
Mosses and liverworts are important to the ecology or many areas because they can grow in __________ soil and in soils where other plants cannot grow.
Organisms that are the first to grow in new or disturbed areas are called __________ __________.
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include ferns, __________ __________, and horsetails.
Ground pines and spike mosses are groups of plants that often are called __________ __________.
Club mosses produce __________ in at the end of the stems in structures that look like tiny pinecones.
The stem of __________ is jointed and has a hollow center surrounded by a ring of vascular tissue.
Another common name for horsetails is __________ __________ because the stems contain silica, a gritty substance found in sand.
__________ are the organs of the plant where the food-making process of photosynthesis takes place.
This is the leaf layer that consists of closely packed, long, narrow cells where most photosynthesis takes place.
This is the leaf layer that consists of loosely arranged cells separated by air spaces.
This is the leaf layer where stomata can be found that open and close to let in raw materials for the plant and to get rid of waste products.
The __________ of a plant is usually located above ground and support the branches, leaves, and flowers.
__________ stems are usually hard and rigid and have an outer covering called bark, like a tree.
__________ tissue is made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked one on top of the other to form a structure called a vessel that transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
__________ is a plant tissue made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form structures called tubes that carry food from the leaves down to the roots.
In plants the __________ act as doorways for raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and waste gases to enter and exit the leaf.
In the lower epidermis of leaves two cells called __________ __________ open and close the stomata.
__________ is the process during which a plant's chlorophyll traps light energy and sugars are produced.
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy are the three __________ __________ needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-__________ and light-independent reactions.
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-dependent and light-__________ reactions.
During light-dependent reactions chlorophyll traps and uses light energy to split __________ into hydrogen and oxygen.
During light-independent reactions the light energy trapped during the light-dependent reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form __________
__________ is a series of chemical reactions that breaks down food molecules and releases energy.
Respiration uses __________ to break down glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The process of respiration changes __________ __________ into a form that all plant and animals cells can use.
A __________ can be seen in plants as movement caused by a change in growth and can be positive or negative.
In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to the sense of touch.
When a pea plant's tendirls coil around a solid object we say this is a __________ response to touch.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are __________, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, __________, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, __________, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, __________, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and __________ __________.
The plant hormone __________ is produced in the cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.
__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.
__________ are a type of plant hormone that can be sprayed on plants and seeds to stimulate plant stems to grow and seeds to germinate.
__________ are a type of plant hormone that promote growth by causing faster cell divisions.
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that keeps seeds from sprouting and buds from developing during the winter months.
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that causes stomata to close and helps plants respond to water loss on hot summer days.
A plant's response to the number of hours of daylight and darkness it receives daily is called __________.
__________-day plants require less than 10 hours to 12 hours of darkness in order to produce flowers.
__________-neutral plants have no specific photoperiod, and the flowering process can begin within a range of hours of darkness.
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