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176 terms

Plants

STUDY
PLAY
cells
Plants are made of __________.
cell membrane
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which allows substances to enter into and exit the cell.
cell wall
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which provides structure and support for the cell.
cellulose
A plant cell wall is made up of a substance called __________, which is a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar.
cellulose
Long chains of __________ molecules form tangled fibers in plant cell walls.
chlorophyll
Many plants contain the green pigment __________.
green
Most plants are __________ because they contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
photosynthesis
Plants need chlorophyll to make food using a process called __________.
chloroplast
Chlorophyll is found in a cell structure called a __________.
vacuole
Most plant cells have a large, membrane-bound structure called the central __________ that takes up most of the space inside of the cell.
vacuole
The __________ plays an important role in regulating the water content inside of a plant cell.
cuticle
Plants have a waxy covering on their roots, stems, and leaves called a __________ that slows down the loss of water in plants.
cuticle
A waxy, protective layer secreted by the upper epidermis in plants is called the __________.
xylem
In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water from the roots to the leaves.
phloem
In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water and dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the roots.
nonvascular
The two major groups of plants are __________ plants and vascular plants.
vascular
The two major groups of plants are nonvascular plants and __________ plants.
Vascular
__________ plants have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plants.
Nonvascular
__________ plants do not have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant.
Carolus Linnaeus
All plants have a genus species name developed by a man named __________ __________.
spores
Nonvascular plants do not grow from seeds but instead grow from __________.
rhizoids
Instead of roots, nonvascular plants have thread-like structures called __________ that help to anchor the plant to a surface.
water
In nonvascular plants __________ is absorbed directly through cell membranes and cell walls.
cell membranes
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through __________ __________ and cell walls.
cell walls
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through cell membranes and __________ __________.
flowers
Nonvascular plants do not have __________ or cones that produce seeds.
cones
Nonvascular plants do not have flowers or __________ that produce seeds.
spores
Nonvascular plants reproduce by making small waterproof structures called __________.
mosses
Examples of nonvascular plants are __________, liverworts, and hornworts.
liverworts
Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, __________, and hornworts.
hornworts
Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and __________.
mosses
Most nonvascular plants are classified as __________.
mosses
You can usually find __________ growing on tree trunks or on rocks in moist environments.
Mosses
__________ have green, leaf-like growths arranged around a central stalk.
rhizoids
Instead of roots mosses have __________.
liverworts
In the ninth centruy, __________ were thought to be useful in treating diseases of the liver.
herb
The suffix "wort" means "__________".
Liverworts
__________ are rootless plants with flattened, leaf-like bodies called "thallus".
hornworts
Most __________ are less than 2.5 centimeters in diameters and have a flattened body like liverworts.
chloroplast
The plant cells of hornworts are unique because they have only one large __________ in each cell.
Hornworts
__________ get their name from their spore-producing structures, which look like tiny horns of cattle.
thin
Mosses and liverworts are important to the ecology or many areas because they can grow in __________ soil and in soils where other plants cannot grow.
pioneer species
Organisms that are the first to grow in new or disturbed areas are called __________ __________.
fern
A __________ is a type of vascular plant that produces spores instead of seeds.
vascular
Vascular plants have __________ tissue.
vascular bundles
Vascular tissue contains __________ __________.
xylem
Vascular bundles contain __________ and phloem.
phloem
Vascular bundles contain xylem and __________.
ferns
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include __________, club mosses, and horsetails.
club mosses
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include ferns, __________ __________, and horsetails.
horsetails
Examples of vascular seedless plants include ferns, club mosses, and __________.
Ferns
__________ are the largest group of vascular, seedless plants.
fronds
Fern leaves are called __________.
club mosses
Ground pines and spike mosses are groups of plants that often are called __________ __________.
needle
Club mosses have __________-like leaves.
spores
Club mosses produce __________ in at the end of the stems in structures that look like tiny pinecones.
horsetails
The stem of __________ is jointed and has a hollow center surrounded by a ring of vascular tissue.
sections
If you pull on a horsetail stem, it will pop apart in __________.
scouring rush
Another common name for horsetails is __________ __________ because the stems contain silica, a gritty substance found in sand.
silica
This is a gritty substance found in sand and in some plants.
seeds
All vascular plants produce __________ instead of spores.
gymnosperms
The two major groups of seed plants include __________ and angiosperms.
angiosperms
The two major groups of seed plants include gymnosperms and __________.
Leaves
__________ are the organs of the plant where the food-making process of photosynthesis takes place.
cells
Leaves are made up of layers of __________.
upper epidermis
The top layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
palisade layer
The second layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
spongy layer
The third layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
lower epidermis
The bottom layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
upper epidermis
This is the leaf layer that is responsible for making the waxy cuticle.
palisade layer
This is the leaf layer that consists of closely packed, long, narrow cells where most photosynthesis takes place.
spongy layer
This is the leaf layer that consists of loosely arranged cells separated by air spaces.
lower epidermis
This is the leaf layer where stomata can be found that open and close to let in raw materials for the plant and to get rid of waste products.
spongy layer
This is the leaf layer where the vascular bundles can be found.
stem
The __________ of a plant is usually located above ground and support the branches, leaves, and flowers.
herbaceous
Plant stems can be either __________ or woody.
woody
Plant stems can be either herbaceous or __________.
Herbaceous
__________ stems are usually soft and green, like the stem of a tulip.
Woody
__________ stems are usually hard and rigid and have an outer covering called bark, like a tree.
root
The __________ system is the largest part of a plant.
Xylem
__________ tissue is made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked one on top of the other to form a structure called a vessel that transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
Phloem
__________ is a plant tissue made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form structures called tubes that carry food from the leaves down to the roots.
Cambium
__________ is a plant tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells.
gymnosperms
The oldest trees alive are __________.
Gymnosperms
__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by cones.
needle
The leaves of most gymnosperms are __________-like or scale-like.
evergreens
Many gymnosperms are called __________ because they stay green all year.
conifers
The four main groups of gymnosperms include __________, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
cycads
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, __________, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
ginkgoes
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, __________, and gnetophytes.
gnetophytes
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and __________.
Conifers
__________ are the largest group of gymnosperms.
male
All conifers produce two types of cones, __________ and female.
female
All conifers produce two types of cones, male and __________.
pollen
Male cones produce __________.
seeds
Female cones produce __________.
Angiosperms
__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by fruit.
Angiosperms
__________ produce flowers that eventually change into some type of fruit.
monocots
Angiosperms are divided into two groups, __________ and dicots.
dicots
Angiosperms are divided into two groups, monocots and __________.
Monocots
__________ have flower parts in multiples of three.
Dicots
__________ have flower parts in multiples of four or five.
Monocot
__________ leaves have veins that are parallel.
Dicot
__________ leaves have veins that are net-like.
Monocots
__________ have vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.
Dicots
__________ have vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring.
Monocot
__________ seeds have just one cotyledon (the first leaf).
Dicot
__________ seeds have two cotyledons (the first leaves).
stomata
In plants the __________ act as doorways for raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and waste gases to enter and exit the leaf.
guard cells
In the lower epidermis of leaves two cells called __________ __________ open and close the stomata.
water
In order to open the stoma the guard cells must be filled with __________.
water
In order to close the stoma the guard cells must be drained of __________.
day
Stomata are usually open during the __________.
night
Stomata are usually closed during the __________.
open
Stomata are usually __________ during the day.
closed
Stomata are usually __________ during the night.
Photosynthesis
__________ is the process during which a plant's chlorophyll traps light energy and sugars are produced.
chloroplasts
In plants, photosynthesis occurs only in cells with __________.
raw materials
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy are the three __________ __________ needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.
end products
Glucose and oxygen are the __________ __________ in the process of photosynthesis.
dependent
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-__________ and light-independent reactions.
independent
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-dependent and light-__________ reactions.
water
During light-dependent reactions chlorophyll traps and uses light energy to split __________ into hydrogen and oxygen.
glucose
During light-independent reactions the light energy trapped during the light-dependent reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form __________
Glucose
__________ is a simple sugar made by plants through the process of photosynthesis.
Respiration
__________ is a series of chemical reactions that breaks down food molecules and releases energy.
chloroplast
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.
mitochondria
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.
oxygen
Respiration uses __________ to break down glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
food energy
The process of respiration changes __________ __________ into a form that all plant and animals cells can use.
stimulus
A __________ is anything in the environment that causes a response in an organism.
tropism
A __________ can be seen in plants as movement caused by a change in growth and can be positive or negative.
thigmotropism
In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to the sense of touch.
gravitropism
In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to gravity.
phototropism
In this type of tropism a plant responds positively or negatively to light.
positive
When a pea plant's tendirls coil around a solid object we say this is a __________ response to touch.
positive
A plant stem and leaves growing toward light is a __________ response to light.
negative
The stem of a plant growing away from gravity is a __________ response to gravity.
positive
The roots of a plant growing towards gravity is a __________ response to gravity.
ethylene
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are __________, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
auxins
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, __________, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
gibberellins
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, __________, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
cytokinins
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, __________, and abscisic acid.
abscisic acid
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and __________ __________.
ethylene
The plant hormone __________ is produced in the cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.
Auxin
__________ is a plant hormone that was discovered by scientists more than 100 years ago.
Auxin
__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.
Gibberellins
__________ are a type of plant hormone that can be sprayed on plants and seeds to stimulate plant stems to grow and seeds to germinate.
Cytokinins
__________ are a type of plant hormone that promote growth by causing faster cell divisions.
Abscisic acid
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that keeps seeds from sprouting and buds from developing during the winter months.
Abscisic acid
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that causes stomata to close and helps plants respond to water loss on hot summer days.
abscisic acid
The abbreviation "ABA" is the abbreviation for what plant hormone?
photoperiodism
A plant's response to the number of hours of daylight and darkness it receives daily is called __________.
Long
__________-day plants require less than 10 hours to 12 hours of darkness in order to produce flowers.
Short
__________-day plants require 12 or more hours of darkness in order to produce flowers.
Day
__________-neutral plants have no specific photoperiod, and the flowering process can begin within a range of hours of darkness.
cuticle
What is letter "A" in the leaf structure picture?
upper epidermis
What is letter "B" in the leaf structure picture?
palisade layer
What is letter "C" in the leaf structure picture?
vascular bundle
What is letter "D" in the leaf structure picture?
spongy layer
What is letter "E" in the leaf structure picture?
lower epidermis
What is letter "F" in the leaf structure picture?
guard cells
What is letter "G" in the leaf structure picture?
stoma
What is letter "H" in the leaf structure picture?
stamen
What is letter "A" in the flower structure picture?
filament
What is letter "B" in the flower structure picture?
anther
What is letter "C" in the flower structure picture?
pollen grains
What is letter "D" in the flower structure picture?
stigma
What is letter "E" in the flower structure picture?
style
What is letter "F" in the flower structure picture?
ovary
What is letter "G" in the flower structure picture?
ovules
What is letter "H" in the flower structure picture?
pistil
What is letter "I" in the flower structure picture?
petals
What is letter "J" in the flower structure picture?
stem
What is letter "K" in the flower structure picture?
sepals
What is letter "L" in the flower structure picture ?