Plants are made of __________.
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which allows substances to enter into and exit the cell.
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which provides structure and support for the cell.
A plant cell wall is made up of a substance called __________, which is a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar.
Long chains of __________ molecules form tangled fibers in plant cell walls.
Many plants contain the green pigment __________.
Most plants are __________ because they contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
Plants need chlorophyll to make food using a process called __________.
Chlorophyll is found in a cell structure called a __________.
Most plant cells have a large, membrane-bound structure called the central __________ that takes up most of the space inside of the cell.
The __________ plays an important role in regulating the water content inside of a plant cell.
Plants have a waxy covering on their roots, stems, and leaves called a __________ that slows down the loss of water in plants.
A waxy, protective layer secreted by the upper epidermis in plants is called the __________.
In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water from the roots to the leaves.
In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water and dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the roots.
The two major groups of plants are __________ plants and vascular plants.
The two major groups of plants are nonvascular plants and __________ plants.
__________ plants have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plants.
__________ plants do not have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant.
All plants have a genus species name developed by a man named __________ __________.
Nonvascular plants do not grow from seeds but instead grow from __________.
Instead of roots, nonvascular plants have thread-like structures called __________ that help to anchor the plant to a surface.
In nonvascular plants __________ is absorbed directly through cell membranes and cell walls.
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through __________ __________ and cell walls.
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through cell membranes and __________ __________.
Nonvascular plants do not have __________ or cones that produce seeds.
Nonvascular plants do not have flowers or __________ that produce seeds.
Nonvascular plants reproduce by making small waterproof structures called __________.
Examples of nonvascular plants are __________, liverworts, and hornworts.
Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, __________, and hornworts.
Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and __________.
Most nonvascular plants are classified as __________.
You can usually find __________ growing on tree trunks or on rocks in moist environments.
__________ have green, leaf-like growths arranged around a central stalk.
Instead of roots mosses have __________.
In the ninth centruy, __________ were thought to be useful in treating diseases of the liver.
The suffix "wort" means "__________".
__________ are rootless plants with flattened, leaf-like bodies called "thallus".
Most __________ are less than 2.5 centimeters in diameters and have a flattened body like liverworts.
The plant cells of hornworts are unique because they have only one large __________ in each cell.
__________ get their name from their spore-producing structures, which look like tiny horns of cattle.
Mosses and liverworts are important to the ecology or many areas because they can grow in __________ soil and in soils where other plants cannot grow.
Organisms that are the first to grow in new or disturbed areas are called __________ __________.
A __________ is a type of vascular plant that produces spores instead of seeds.
Vascular plants have __________ tissue.
Vascular tissue contains __________ __________.
Vascular bundles contain __________ and phloem.
Vascular bundles contain xylem and __________.
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include __________, club mosses, and horsetails.
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include ferns, __________ __________, and horsetails.
Examples of vascular seedless plants include ferns, club mosses, and __________.
__________ are the largest group of vascular, seedless plants.
Fern leaves are called __________.
Ground pines and spike mosses are groups of plants that often are called __________ __________.
Club mosses have __________-like leaves.
Club mosses produce __________ in at the end of the stems in structures that look like tiny pinecones.
The stem of __________ is jointed and has a hollow center surrounded by a ring of vascular tissue.
If you pull on a horsetail stem, it will pop apart in __________.
Another common name for horsetails is __________ __________ because the stems contain silica, a gritty substance found in sand.
This is a gritty substance found in sand and in some plants.
All vascular plants produce __________ instead of spores.
The two major groups of seed plants include __________ and angiosperms.
The two major groups of seed plants include gymnosperms and __________.
__________ are the organs of the plant where the food-making process of photosynthesis takes place.
Leaves are made up of layers of __________.
The top layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
The second layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
The third layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
The bottom layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
This is the leaf layer that is responsible for making the waxy cuticle.
This is the leaf layer that consists of closely packed, long, narrow cells where most photosynthesis takes place.
This is the leaf layer that consists of loosely arranged cells separated by air spaces.
This is the leaf layer where stomata can be found that open and close to let in raw materials for the plant and to get rid of waste products.
This is the leaf layer where the vascular bundles can be found.
The __________ of a plant is usually located above ground and support the branches, leaves, and flowers.
Plant stems can be either __________ or woody.
Plant stems can be either herbaceous or __________.
__________ stems are usually soft and green, like the stem of a tulip.
__________ stems are usually hard and rigid and have an outer covering called bark, like a tree.
The __________ system is the largest part of a plant.
__________ tissue is made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked one on top of the other to form a structure called a vessel that transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
__________ is a plant tissue made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form structures called tubes that carry food from the leaves down to the roots.
__________ is a plant tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells.
The oldest trees alive are __________.
__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by cones.
The leaves of most gymnosperms are __________-like or scale-like.
Many gymnosperms are called __________ because they stay green all year.
The four main groups of gymnosperms include __________, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, __________, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, __________, and gnetophytes.
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and __________.
__________ are the largest group of gymnosperms.
All conifers produce two types of cones, __________ and female.
All conifers produce two types of cones, male and __________.
Male cones produce __________.
Female cones produce __________.
__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by fruit.
__________ produce flowers that eventually change into some type of fruit.
Angiosperms are divided into two groups, __________ and dicots.
Angiosperms are divided into two groups, monocots and __________.
__________ have flower parts in multiples of three.
__________ have flower parts in multiples of four or five.
__________ leaves have veins that are parallel.
__________ leaves have veins that are net-like.
__________ have vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.
__________ have vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring.
__________ seeds have just one cotyledon (the first leaf).
__________ seeds have two cotyledons (the first leaves).
In plants the __________ act as doorways for raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and waste gases to enter and exit the leaf.
In the lower epidermis of leaves two cells called __________ __________ open and close the stomata.
In order to open the stoma the guard cells must be filled with __________.
In order to close the stoma the guard cells must be drained of __________.
Stomata are usually open during the __________.
Stomata are usually closed during the __________.
Stomata are usually __________ during the day.
Stomata are usually __________ during the night.
__________ is the process during which a plant's chlorophyll traps light energy and sugars are produced.
In plants, photosynthesis occurs only in cells with __________.
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy are the three __________ __________ needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.
Glucose and oxygen are the __________ __________ in the process of photosynthesis.
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-__________ and light-independent reactions.
The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-dependent and light-__________ reactions.
During light-dependent reactions chlorophyll traps and uses light energy to split __________ into hydrogen and oxygen.
During light-independent reactions the light energy trapped during the light-dependent reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form __________
__________ is a simple sugar made by plants through the process of photosynthesis.
__________ is a series of chemical reactions that breaks down food molecules and releases energy.
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.
Respiration uses __________ to break down glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The process of respiration changes __________ __________ into a form that all plant and animals cells can use.
A __________ is anything in the environment that causes a response in an organism.
A __________ can be seen in plants as movement caused by a change in growth and can be positive or negative.
In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to the sense of touch.
In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to gravity.
In this type of tropism a plant responds positively or negatively to light.
When a pea plant's tendirls coil around a solid object we say this is a __________ response to touch.
A plant stem and leaves growing toward light is a __________ response to light.
The stem of a plant growing away from gravity is a __________ response to gravity.
The roots of a plant growing towards gravity is a __________ response to gravity.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are __________, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, __________, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, __________, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, __________, and abscisic acid.
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and __________ __________.
The plant hormone __________ is produced in the cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.
__________ is a plant hormone that was discovered by scientists more than 100 years ago.
__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.
__________ are a type of plant hormone that can be sprayed on plants and seeds to stimulate plant stems to grow and seeds to germinate.
__________ are a type of plant hormone that promote growth by causing faster cell divisions.
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that keeps seeds from sprouting and buds from developing during the winter months.
__________ __________ is a type of plant hormone that causes stomata to close and helps plants respond to water loss on hot summer days.
The abbreviation "ABA" is the abbreviation for what plant hormone?
A plant's response to the number of hours of daylight and darkness it receives daily is called __________.
__________-day plants require less than 10 hours to 12 hours of darkness in order to produce flowers.
__________-day plants require 12 or more hours of darkness in order to produce flowers.
__________-neutral plants have no specific photoperiod, and the flowering process can begin within a range of hours of darkness.
What is letter "A" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "B" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "C" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "D" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "E" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "F" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "G" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "H" in the leaf structure picture?
What is letter "A" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "B" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "C" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "D" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "E" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "F" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "G" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "H" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "I" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "J" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "K" in the flower structure picture?
What is letter "L" in the flower structure picture ?
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