99 terms

Psychology Ch.1

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
any action
mental processes
perceptions, thoughts, feelings
latent contstraints
cannot measure directly, only measure by measuring something else
describe, explain, predict, control
4 goals of psychology
Wilheim Wundt
known as the father of psychology
first man to attempt to bring objectivity and measurement in psychology
first man to found the 1st psychology experiment in late 1800's
observation introspection
process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental processes
Edward Titchener
student of Wundt who translated many of his works into English
study of consciousness by trying to understand the smallest, basic elements
William James
discovered functionalism
study of function of consciousness- how the mind works
Dr. Charles Thompson
first African american to receive doctorate in educational psychology from Chicago (1925)
Max Wertheimer
founder of Gestalt psychology
Gestalt psychology
theory that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Sigmund Freud
psychologist who worked with patients whose complaints had no identifiable physical cause
therapy that focused on early childhood development and psychosexual stages
Freud viewed the mind as an _______
Russian physiologist who believed reflex could be caused in response to a formerly unrelated stimulus (dogs and saliva)
John Watson
psychologist who focused on behaviorism
the study of observable behavior
Watson discovered that reflexes could be _________
Little Albert study
study used by Watson to observe reflexes
modern view of psychoanalysis
focuses on the development of a sense and motivations behind it
attachment therapy
type of bond formed between caregiver and infant
behavioral perspective
how to manipulate voluntary behavior by changing the consequences of behavior
operant conditioning
how voluntary behavior is learned, responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced
Humanistic Perspective
emphasis in conscious and immediate experiences and empowerment of individual
hold the view that people have free will
Cognitive perspective
focuses on how people think, remember, and store information
cognitive neuroscience
deals with the brain and cognitive processing
sociocultural perspective
combines social and cultural psychology
social psychology
study of groups, relationships, social influences on behavior
cultural psychology
study of cultural values and norms or standards of behavior
biopsychological perspective
idea that mental processes can be explained by biological factors
evolutionary perspective
idea that argues that human behavior is a result of psychological adaptations that help people successfully function and survive
evolutionary perspective developed from ______
gestalt psychology
cognitive perspective developed from __________
psychodynamic is the modern view of ________
professional with a doctoral degree and specialized training in on or more subfields of psychology
basic and applied
two types of research psychologists can participate in
NOT allowed
psychologist are/ are not allowed to prescribe medication
psychiatrist are/are not allowed to prescribe medicine
professional that attends medical school and specializes in diagnosis of mental disorders
common bias
tendency to notice, seek out, and interpret information in a way consistent with your own prior beliefs
scientific method
a system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data
perceiving the question
qualifies as the description step
form hypothesis
qualifies as the description and explanation step
test hypothesis
qualifies as the explanation step
drawing conclusions
qualifies as the prediction step
reporting results
qualifies as the control step
naturalistic, lab
two descriptive methods
naturalistic observation
watching animals or humans in normal environment
naturalistic observation
a realistic picture of behavior is an advantage of the _____
observer effect
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
observer bias
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
blind observers
people who do not know what the research question is act as ______
naturalistic observing
observer effect and bias are two limitations of ______
laboratory observations
watching animals or humans behavior in a lab setting
lab observations
control of environment and use of specialized equipment are two advantages of ____
case study
study of individual's in great detail
case studies
a tremendous amount of detail is an advantage of ______
case studies
generalized findings are a limitation of ________
a technique for ascertaining self reported aptitudes
large number of people and the ability to study covert behaviors are two advantages of _____
entire groups of people researcher is interested in
representative sample
a randomly selected sample of subjects for a larger population
measure of the relationship between two variables
anything that can change or vary
tells us the direction of the relationship
describes the strength of the relationship
positive correlation
variables are related in the same directon
negative correlation
variables are related in the opposite direction
weak relationship
closer to zero
strong relationship
closer to + or - 1
correlation does/does not prove causation
operational definition
names the operations that the experiment must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment
independent variable
manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
variable in the experiment that represents the measurable response
experimental group
subjects in the experiment that are subjected to the independent variable
control group
subjects in the experiment who are no subjected to the independent variable
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by random assignments
equal chance, limits differences
two advantages of random assignment
extraneous variable that affects the variables that you are interested in studying
demand characteristics
participants change their behavior based on what they perceive the experiment to be about
experimental and control groups and random assignments qualifies as confounds/ demand characteristics
placebo effect
expectations of participants can influence their behavior
experimenter effects
experimenter's expectations can unintentionally influence the results of a study
single blind
blind to the treatment they receive
double blind
when neither the participants or the person measuring knows who got what treatment
quasi experimental designs
are not considered true experiments due to the lack of randomly assigning participants
allows people to make their own decisions
informed consent, debriefing, and the right to withdraw qualify as _____
maximizes the benefits while minimizing harm
fair treatment of participants
critical thinking
making reasoned judgments that are well thought out and logical
critical thinking
very few truths that don't need to be tested, all evidence isn't equal, not everything an expert does is right, open mind are all things needed for ______