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Ch.2 Relevant theories and therapies for nursing practice
Terms in this set (87)
3 theorists of psychoanalytic theories
3 theorists of behavioral theories
2 theorists of cognitive theories
1 theorists of humanistic
3 components of Freud's level of awarness
What is part of the mind and is tip of the iceberg; contains all the material a person is aware of at any one time, including perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, and feelings?
what is below the surface of awareness and contains material that can be retrieved rather easily though conscious effort?
what includes all repressed memories, passions, and unacceptable urges lying deep below the surface?
3 parts of personality structure
what personality is the structure of all drives, instincts, reflexes, needs, genetic, inheritance, and capacity to respond, as well as all the wishes that motivate us?
what lacks the ability to problem solve; not logical and operate according to the pleasure principle?
what personality structure is the problem solver and reality tester; able to differentiate subjective experiences, memory images, and objective reality and attempts to negotiate with the outside world?
what personality structure is the moral component and the last portion of the personality to develop; contains the should nots and shoulds?
what does the ego develop as a way to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of thretening feelings?
what are 2 common features that defense mechanisms share?
1)hey all (except suppression) operate on an unconscious level and
(2) they deny, falsify, or distort reality to make it less threatening.
what is the relief or expression of anxiety through symptoms of disorder?
what is the attentio nand support received from others while ill?
who believes that experiences during the early stages determined an individuals lifetime adjustment patterns and personality traits?
who believed that personality was formed by the time the child entered school and that subsequent growth consisted of elaborating on this basic structure?
what are two concepts from classic psychoanalysis?
what refers to feelings that the patient has toward health care workers that were originally held toward significant others in his or her life?
what refers to unconsicous feelings that the health care worker was toward the patient?
(e.g.,For instance, if the patient reminds you of someone you do not like, you may unconsciously react as if the patient were that individual. )
what is a therapeutic modality based on classical psychoanalysis but with less focus on the early development of pathology. It uses free association, dream analysis, transference, and countertransference. The therapist is actively involved and interacts with the client in the here and now.
what uses free association, dream analysis, transference, and countertransference?
what 5 disorders does not work well with psychodynamic therapy?
what kinds of candidates does psychodynamic therapy work best on?
well-functioning indivduals, the worried well, who have a clearly circumscribed area of difficulty and are intelligent, psycholigically minded, and well motivated for change
what theorists also followed Freud but believed that a person's development is influenced by more than mother-child-father triangle and that culture and society exert significant influence on personality?
who defined personality as behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships?
what is the term for behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships?
according to sullivan what was the purpose of all behavior?
to get needs met through interpersonal interactions and to decrease or avoid anxiety
what is the term for any painful feeling or emotion that arises from social insecurity or prevents biological needs from being satisfied?
what is the term to describe measures the individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security?
what therapy is a therapeutic modality that emphasizes what goes on between people. The basis of the therapy is on building interpersonal skills and correcting faulty processes of interacting?
what is the goal on interpersonal psychotherapy?
to reduce or eliminate psychiatric symptoms by improving interpersonal functioning and satisfaction with social relationships?
what are 4 types of problems that can be identified in interpersonal psychotherapy?
what is the term for complicated bereavement following the death or loss of a loved one?
what is the term for conflicts with the a SO?
what is the problematic change in life status or social or vocational role?
what is an ability to initiate or sustain close relationships?
what theory was the foundation for the hildegard peplau theory?
Peplau prooposed an approach in which nurses are both what 2 things in therapeutic conversations?
Peplau believed it was essential for nurses to observe the behavior not only of the patient but also of whom?
Self-awarness on part of the nurse is essential in keeping the focus on what?
the patient and keeping the social and personal needs of the nurse out of the nurse-patient converstaion
the art component of nursing according to Peplau consists of what 4 things?
4)enhance comfort and wellbeing
what is the science component according to Peplau?
1)understand a broad range of human problems and psychosocial phenomena
2)intervene in relieving patient's suffering and promote growth
what what peplau's most universal contribution to the everyday practice of
psychiatric mental health nursing?
application of Sullivan's theory of anxiety to nursing practice
what are 2 contributions of Peplau on nursing psychiatric mental health?
1)described the effects of different levels of anxiety on perception and learning
2)promoted interventions to lower anxiety, with the aim of improving patients' abilities to think and function at more satisfactory levels
classical conditioning is related to who?
behavorism theory is associated to who?
operant conditioning is associated to who?
who argues that personality simply consists of learned behaviors?
what term involved pairing a behavior with a condition that reinforces or diminishes the behavior's occurrence?
classical conditioned responses are what?
involuntary--not under conscious personal control and are not sponteneous choices
who concluded that controlling the environment could mold behavior and that anyone could be trained to be anything?
what theory is associated with voluntary behaviors that are learned through consequences, and behavioral responses are elicited through reinforcement
what is the term for behavior to occur more frequently?
what is the term for The presentation of a reward immediately following a behavior, making the behavior more likely to occur in the future?
what is the term for Increasing the probability of a behavior by removing unpleasant consequences. This concept is related to positive reinforcement, which rewards or gives in to a specific behavior. A mouse that learns to press a lever to stop a shock has undergone negative reinforcement?
what is a technique that can cause behaviors to occur less?
what type of therapy is based on teh assumption that changes in maladaptive behavior can occur without insight into the underlying cause?
what 3 conditions does behavior therapy work on?
what are 5 types of behavior therapy?
what type of behavior therapy involves the therapist providing a role model for specific identified behaviors, and the patient learns through imitation?
what is an example of modeling?
what behavior therapy is the basis for behavior modification and uses positive reinforcement to increase desired behaviors?
what reward system is related to operant conditioning?
operant conditioning has been useful in what 3 disorders?
3)developmentally disabled children
what behavior therapy involves the development of behavior tasks customized to the patient's specific fears?
what are 3 aversion techniques?
1)pairing of a maladaptive behavior with a noxious stimulus (e.g., pairing the sight and smell of alcohol with electric shock),
2)punishment (e.g., punishment applied after the patient has had an alcoholic drink)
3)avoidance training (e.g., patient avoids punishment by pushing a glass of alcohol away within a certain time limit)
what behavior therapy is used for controlling the body's physiological response to stress and anxiety?
what theory involves dynamic interplay between individuals and the environment?
what theorists believed that thoughts come before feeling and actions, and thoughts about the world and our place in it are based on our own unique perspectives, which may or may not be based on reality?
2 theories belonging to cognitive theories
1)rational-emotive behavior theory (Ellis)
2)cognitive behavioral therapy (Beck)
what cognitive theory is aimed to eradicate core irrational beliefs by helping people recognize thoughts that are not accurate, sensible, or useful?
rational-emotive behavior therapy
rational-emotive behavior therapy take the form of what (3)?
shoulds, oughts, and musts
Ellis described negative thinking as what process?
A--> activating event
B--> beliefs about the event
C--> emotional consequences as a reseult of the event
what cognitive theory is based on both cognitive psychology and behavioral theory?
cognitive behavioral therapy
what cognitive theory is based on the principle that feelings and behaviors are largely determined by the way people think about the world and their place in it?
cognitive behavioral therapy
what theory is based on human beings are active participants in life, striving for self-actualization?
humanistic theories; maslows heiarchy of needs
what is an example of humanistic theory?
maslow's heiarchy of needs
according to maslow, when lower leve needs are met, what needs are able to emerge?
what does biological theory focus on (4)?
a biologival perspective view abnormal behavior as part of what?
disease process or a defect and seeks to stop or alter it
what theory considers other influences that play a role in the development and treatment of mental disorders?
biological theories focus on what 3 things?
1)qualities of therapeutic relationship
2)understanding patient's perspective
3)communicating to facilitate recovery
what therapy uses total environment to develop an atmosphere that facilitate patient's growth, rehabilitation, and restoration of health?
in milieu therapy what 4 things are all important to healing?
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