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in the roman republic they represented the poor people


bad emperor of Rome; set fire to Rome and blamed enemies


Before the Common Era


Before Christ


In the year of our lord


famous roman who wrote epic poems; most famous is Aeneid


was the capital of the Byzantine Empire

Jesus Christ

Son of God


a craftsman; ex. Cobbler, blacksmith


Latin for "I forbid"

Cannon Law

church law or Law of the church


statue or picture that stands for a religious figure


when you shouldn't show a lot of emotion being calm


When you use money to bring you more money


another name for class; rich or poor


is to charge interest in loans


when the guy named Pisiteris ran from marathon to Athens and proclaimed the Greeks stopped the Persians then dropped dead

Papal states

areas owned and controlled by the church and owned by the church in present day Italy.

Crusader states

just east of Mediterranean Sea which were 4 states captured by the crusaders

Joan of Ark

peasant girl; influenced the prince of France to lead troops and helped stop the English from conquering France. English then captured her and she was burned to the stake. 1200 she became a saint


wrote tragedies


systematic violence against any group of people

Flying buttress

the large arch supports outside gave the apothic churches the ability to have larger windows and lighter walls

Long bow

English were able to use the long bow to pierce the armor of French knights and nobles while the crossbow the French used was not as powerful

Holy Roman Emperor

lasted about 1000 years, first emperor was Otto


English Royal family established by Henry 7


the central place of the renaissance


famous renaissance painter who painted Mary

Leonardo de Vinci

famous inventor/painter who painted the last supper and the Mona Lisa

Babylon captivity

when there is no pope in Rome but 1 in Avignon


is when someone who speaks out against the church or whatever is the most common idea


is when some lower levels of feudalism (someone's a lord and a vassal)

Three field system

When they leave 1/3 of the field to restore instead of half

Medieval university

found by cathedrals; generally the smart people where in the church

St Thomas Aquinias

A famous scholastic philosopher who tried to prove the bible with reason

Black Death

the plague

Richard the lion the heart

richard I of england was captured by the Muslims


menwho believed that man could achieve things during there life time

Darma and Karma

darma is the idea that if you do your duties then you get karma which is reward of punishment in your next life


Center of the religion of Islam

House of Commons and the House of Lords

British parliament


Big banking family in Florence


the idea that if you killed a more important person then the punishment is worse if you instead killed a peasant


to kick an area out of the church


is to kick and individual out of the church


people who studies mathematics, writing, language

Counsel of Constance

brought an end to the great schism


painted a chapel ceiling


paintings done on the wall; literally painting the wall


Ferdinand and Isabella united Modern day Spain

Magna Carta

John I of England signed this document that limited his power


Greek guy, wrote and oath for doctors that they should heal people

War of the Roses

Middle 1400's; decided which family should rule England Henry VII prevailed

Punic Wars

war fought by the Catharage and Rome; Rome was the winner

Five pillars

basic responsibility of the Muslim religion


Split the Roman Empire into East and West

Twelve Tables

laws of the Roman Republic

Barefoot at Canossa

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, got the pope pissed so Mr. Pope excommunicated Henry. Henry went to Mr. Pope dressed as a peasant and wore no shoes when he asked forgiveness. Gregory VII in mista Pope

Peloponnesian League

war between Athens and Sparta (plus other city states); Sparta


Asian people invaded the Roman Empire. Attila the Hun was the leader


when the church and the state are the same thing

Council of Trent

were major decisions of the catholic church where made


philosophy that the richer the country the more powerful

Peace of Augsburg

German princes could choose what religion they wanted

Angelatin Church

the church of England

Edict of Nance

gave religious freedom to protestants in France


when you pay the church to get out of hell

Martin Luther

started protestant reformation


Italian political philosopher who told princes that you shouldn't rule with morals "the end justifies the mean"

Philip II of Spain

sent the Spanish armada to England and tried to promote Catholicism

Henry VIII of England

takes England out of the catholic church just so he could divorce his wife

Salvation through Faith

you didn't need to go to church, receive sacraments to go to heaven just believe in God


stressed that religion should be a personal thing laid the egg that Luther hatched about

Justification by faith

Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation


invented the printing press; helped spread ideas

Lorenzo Medici

powerful member of the Medici family


Ignatius tried to spread Catholicism


an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator


gave men rights to control land in the new world


name for a Dutch land owner in America


someone who tries to make money

Bartholomeu Diaz

sailed on the coast of South Africa by Cape Cod, from Portugal

Jack Cartier

explored around the Mississippi river


founded the Pacific Ocean

Prince Henry the Navigator

he sponsored the Portuguese exploration

John Calvin

created Calvinism which states that everything you do has be planned by god

Counter Reformation

the Catholic Church tried to make themselves better and stop people from switching to protestant

Middle Passage

black slaves coming from Africa to America


In regards to Spain when the Christians drove the Muslims out of Spain

Counsel of Clermont

this is where the Mr. Pope called for the crusades


proving the crap in the bible by reasoning and science

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