Whose idea: wealthy citizens
Problem addressed: the spreading of the Enlightenment ideas.
Solution proposed: became a place where elegant drawings where showns, ideas shared - brought writers & artists together with aristrocrats, government officials & wealthy middle class people.
Long-Term Significance: carried out the fact that ideas were being shared between each other all around Europe.
Occupation held: Writer
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: went to the University of Paris - wrote the "Encyclopedia, or Classied Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades." - made of 28 volumes of collected knowledge - this Encyclopedia attacked religious supersition & supported religious tolerance - sold to doctors, clergymen, teacher, & lawyers.
Long-Term Significance: spread ideas from the period of Enlightment.
Whose idea: artists
When made: 1600's & early 1700's
Problem addressed: style of art.
Solution proposed: characterized by a grand, ornate design - seen in elaborate places: Versailles.
Long-Term significance: emerged to different styles & forms of art.
Occupation held: Comopser
When: 18th Century
Where: Vienna, Austria
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: great figure of classical period in music - developed new styles - wrote music.
Long-Term Significance: developed new styles of music.
Whose idea: artists
Problem addressed: as different styles emerged, this became way to express art.
Solution proposed: stressed grandeur & power - emphasized grace, charm, & gentleness - highly secular.
Long-Term Significance: varied art styles.
Enlightened Despots (absolutism)
Occupation held: Rulers
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: embraced the new ideas & made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit.
Long-Term Significance: made possible that rulers could establish reforms & new ways of living.
Frederick II (Frederick the Great)
Occupation held: King of Prussia
When: 1740 - 1786
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: granted many religious freedoms - reduced censorship - improved education - reformed justice system - ended serfdom.
Long-Term Significance: his attitude made his country strong & strengthened his country.
Occupation held: Radical Royal Reformer
When: 1780 - 1790
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: legal reforms - freedom of press - supported freedom to worship - abolished serfdom - ordered that peasants were to be paid for their labor in cash.
Long-Term Significance: Joseph cared about his citizens therefore he gave them the right to express themselves freely.
Occupation held: Empress
When: mid 1700's
Where: Austrian Empire
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: worked to centralize the Austrian Empire - strengthen the power of the state - did not agree with reforms.
Long-Term Significance: she worked hard to gain the things she wanted to accomplish for her empire - she inspired others to work hard for what they wanted also.
Catherine II (Catherine the Great)
Occupation held: Queen
When: 1762 - 1796
Major accomplishments/Things ruined: recommended allowing religious toleration & abolishing torture & capital punishment - did little to improve the life of peasants - only THOUGHT about removing serfdom - expanded the Russian nation.
Long-Term Significance: Catherine did nothing to help her people, the only great accomplishment was the how she expanded the empire.
War of Austrian Succession
Major countries: many areas in - France, Austria, India
When fought: 1740 - 1748
Where fought: North America, Europe, India.
Chief issues: succession to the Austrian Throne
Winning sides advantage: all partied agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Capellle - returned all occupied territories except Silesia.
Who gained/Lost what: refusal to return Silesia - another war to begin.