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Turning Points of the Late 19th c.

Ku Klux Klan

secret domestic militant organizations in the United States, originating in the southern states and eventually having national scope, that are best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as terrorists while hidden behind conical hats, masks and white robes. The KKK has a record of terrorism,[2] violence, and lynching to intimidate, murder, and oppress African Americans, Jews and other minorities and to intimidate and oppose Roman Catholics and labor unions.

Wade Davis Bill

1864; required that before a formerly seceded state could form a govt, 50% of the adult white male population in that state would have to take an oath of loyalty to the Union; the state could then hold a constitutional convention to make a new govt for itself; legal equality for blacks, but didn't provide them with the right to vote

Freedman's Bureau

established by Congress, this addressed aspects of people's lives that had normally been left to private initiative; responsible for protecting blacks against reenslavement; provided direct aid to blacks, such as finding employment, supervising labor contracts, setting up schools and courts, etc.

Thirteenth Amendment

Lincoln pressed for this, which outlawed slavery

Black Codes

some of the reorganized southern state governments passed these, defining the rights of emancipated slaves in ways that severely restricted their freedom

Fourteenth Amendment

declared "All persons" were citizens of the U.S.; prohibited the states from violating the privileges and immunities of citizens of the U.S. or denying to anyone the equal protection of the laws; did not directly extend the right to vote, but rather attempted to entice the states to give the vote to blacks

Military Reconstruction Act

1867; divided the South into five districts and placed them under military rule; required Southern States to ratify the 14th amendment; guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in convention to write new state constitutions

Charles Sumner

a Senator from Massachusetts; led the radicals

Thaddeus Stevens

a Congressman from Pennsylvania; wanted Confederate lands appropriated by Washington and given to blacks


first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a government official

Fifteenth Amendment

ratified in 1870; Congress brought the right to vote under federal control; applied to black males in the North as well as former slaves in the South

American Equal Rights Association

organized by Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, and Lucretia Mott in 1866; supported suffrage for both white women and blacks


northerners who were the opponents to the scalawags; were well-educated, middle-class professionals; many were former Union soldiers attracted by the South's climate and cheap land


local whites in the South who had resettled there and supported or entered Reconstruction governments; were ex-Whigs seeking to reenter politics; their beliefs accorded with the policies of congressional Reconstruction


system of agriculture or agricultural production in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land

Crop Lien

a way for farmers to get credit. After the crop was harvested they would use it to pay back their loan

Debt Peonage

a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods


a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era, who sought to oust the Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags. They were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the conservative, pro-business wing of the Democratic Party.

Henry Grady

a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the former Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War.

Tuskegee Institute

not important; founded by Booker T. Washington

Jim Crow

state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a "separate but equal" status for black Americans and members of other non-white racial groups.

Plains Indians

Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America.

General Custer

a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars.

Little Big Horn

1876; Custer's Last Stand, and, in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of Greasy Grass Creek—was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army.

Union and Central Pacific Railroads

the first transcontinental railroad sponsored by federal land grants

Golden Spike

is the last, ceremonial spike driven specifically to mark the completion of a railroad line. The so called "Golden Spike" was the "Last Spike" driven by Leland Stanford to join the rails of the First Transcontinental Railroad across the United States connecting the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads

Great American Desert

used in the 19th century to describe the High Plains east of the Rocky Mountain

Great Basin and Plains Indians

large, arid region of the western United States; the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America

Sun Dance

a ceremony practiced by a number of Native Americans. This ceremony was one of the most important rituals practiced by The North American Plains Indians. Each tribe has its own distinct rituals and methods of performing the dance, but many of the ceremonies have features in common, including dancing, singing, praying, drumming, the experience of visions, fasting, and in some cases piercing of the chest or back.

Great Sioux Wars

was a series of battles and negotiations between the Lakota (Sioux), Northern Cheyenne, and the United States between 1876 and 1877.

Chivington Massacre

an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory. Based on the oral history of Southern Cheyenne Chief Laird Cometsevah, around 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho men,women, and children were killed at Sand Creek. More than 700 American soldiers were involved.[1]

Treaty of Fort Laramie

1868; an agreement between the United States and the Lakota nation, Yanktonai Sioux, Santee Sioux, and Arapaho signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.

Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States; the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho

Reservation System

area of land managed by a Native American tribe

Ghost Dance

a religious movement incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems

Wounded Knee

500 troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece designed for travel with cavalry and used as a replacement for the aging twelve-pound mountain howitzer), surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou Sioux (Lakota) and Hunkpapa Sioux (Lakota).[1] The Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day prior, the Sioux had given up their protracted flight from the troops and willingly agreed to turn themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do so. They were met by the 7th Cavalry, who intended to use a display of force coupled with firm negotiations to gain compliance from them.

Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor

chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on examples of injustices.

Dawes Severalty Act

put in act on February 8, 1887 regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. Named after its sponsor, U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, the act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The act remained in effect until 1934


a term used to identify a Californian of Hispanic (and in very rare cases, of Portuguese or Latin-American) descent, first as a part of New Spain, later of Mexico, today as part of the USA. The territory of California was annexed in 1848 by the United States following the American invasion and subsequent Mexican-American War.


a term used to identify a Texan of Hispanic and/or Latin-American descent.

Virginia City

one of the oldest established cities in Nevada. of the most famous mining boomtowns in the Old West as it virtually appeared overnight as a result of the Comstock Lode silver strike of 1859. had a population of nearly 30,000 residents at peak. When the Comstock Lode ended in 1898, the city's population declined sharply. Site of the Great Fire of 1875.

Black Hills

small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, USA. Set off from the main body of the Rocky Mountains, the region is something of a geological anomaly—accurately described as an "island of trees in a sea of grass". The Black Hills encompass the Black Hills National Forest and are home to the tallest peaks of continental North America east of Rockies. near Mt. Rushmore.


person who violates the law in order to exact what they believe to be justice from criminals, because they think that the criminal will not be caught or will not be sufficiently punished by the legal system.


a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to 120 inches tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows and bulls in the 70 to 80 inch tip to tip range. The first cattle to set foot in North America and the only breed of cattle to evolve without human management. Their meat tasted bad.

cattle drives

the process of moving a herd of cattle from one place to another, usually moved and herded by cowboys on horses. moving herds of cattle long distances to market. Major economic activity in the West.

dry farming

an agricultural technique for cultivating land which receives little rainfall. Used in the Great Plains.

Sod houses

like a log cabin, but on the prairie, and made out of sod from prairie grass.

buffalo chips

buffalo poop can be used as fertilizer and fuel

Frederick Jackson Turner's frontier thesis

stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness. This produced a new type of citizen - one with the power to tame the wild and one upon whom the wild had conferred strength and individuality

Centennial Exposition

1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States. Held in philadelphia to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence there. It was held in Fairmount Park, along the Schuylkill River. About 10 million visitors attended.


a term used for the United States dollar bill.

silver coinage

our coins.

Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act

an 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

replaced the Bland-Allison Act in 1890 but then was later repealed by Congress in 1893. increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month.

Panic of 1893

a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. caused by railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing; which set off a series of bank failures because it was a run on the gold supply

J.P. Morgan

an American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. Formed General Electric. He is in your notes. Formed the United States Steel Company.

pools, trusts, holding companies/mergers

this is all in your notes. It's hard to explain. It's an agreement where people come together to pool their money and resources, or establish price limits, and that kind of thing.

Samuel Gompers

founded the American Federation of Labor and served as the AFL's powerful president from 1886 until his death in 1924.

Terence Powderly

was born in Carbondale, Pennsylvania, the son of Irish immigrants. He was a well-known national figure as leader of the Knights of Labor from 1879 until 1893.

"bread and butter" unionism

Also called "business unionism" or "pure-and-simple unionism." Practiced by AFL. emphasized collective bargaining to reach its goals.

"middle of the road" unionism

Can't find any information on this

Molly Maguires

members of a secret Irish organization. Vigilantes. Attacked higher-ups in mining companies and stuff when their lives were bad. Even murdered people then a detective came in and exposed them and there were trials. Some of them were hanged and some imprisoned forever.

Haymarket Riot

on Tuesday May 4, 1886, in Chicago, began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians. In the internationally publicized legal proceedings that followed, eight anarchists were tried for murder. Four were put to death, and one committed suicide in prison.

Homestead Strike

a labor lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. It is one of the most serious labor disputes in U.S. history. The dispute occurred in the Pittsburgh-area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company.

Pullman Strike

occurred when 3,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 25% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt.

Railroad Strikes of 1877

lasted about 45 days. Started july 14. millions of dollars of property damages.


Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Company managers would hire them to spy on their workers when they suspected something was up.

yellow-dog contracts

an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union. until the 1930s, widely used by employers to prevent the formation of unions, most often by permitting employers to take legal action against union organizers.

Henry Clay Frick

an American industrialist and art patron, once known as "America's most hated man" known for strikebreaking. Teamed up with Carnegie.


Industrial Workers of the World. Also known as Wobblies hehe. International union. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Still exists today.

Joe Hill

was a Swedish-American labor activist, songwriter, and member of the IWW. He was executed for murder after a controversial trial. After his death, he was memorialized by several folk songs.


Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.

closed shop

a business or industrial factory in which union membership (often of a specific union and no other) is a precondition to employment.

open shop

does not consider union membership in hiring decisions and does not give union members preference in hiring

Department stores

retail establishments which specialize in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line.


Sears, Roebuck and Co. an American mid-range chain of international department stores, founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Roebuck in the late 19th century.

Montgomery Ward

former American department store chain, founded as the world's first mail order business in 1872 by Aaron Montgomery Ward.

chain stores

stores with multiple locations, as in across a country, selling the same merchandise.

mail-order houses

ready to assemble then you put 'em together sears sold 'em


is an originally American musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918. Ragtime was the first truly American musical genre, predating jazz.


an American musical art form which originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.


a genre of a variety entertainment prevalent on the stage in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s. It developed from many sources, including the concert saloon, minstrelsy, freak shows, dime museums, and literary burlesque. Vaudeville became one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America, defining an entertainment era.


an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s. The Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists of the day.


a multinational American corportation which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment. Long known for its wide range of photographic film products

Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth

philosophy on the observation that the heirs of large fortunes frequently squandered them in riotous living rather than nurturing and growing them. Even bequeathing one's fortune to charity was no guarantee that it would be used wisely, since there was no guarantee that a charitable organization not under one's direction would use the money in accordance with one's wishes. Carnegie disapproved of charitable giving that merely maintained the poor in their impoverished state, and urged a movement toward the creation of a new mode of giving which would create opportunities for the beneficiaries of the gift to better themselves. As a result, the gift would not be merely consumed, but would be productive of even greater wealth throughout the society.

Social Darwinism

social progress depended on competition among human beings; to interfere with this struggle in any way would result in the collapse of civilization

Survival of the Fittest

competition for survival or predominance

William Graham Sumner

professor at Yale College who advocated laissez-faire economics; classical liberal

Horatio Alger

a prolific writer with a typical hero who was a boy about 15 years old starting adult life; this boy possesses the virtues of honesty, sobriety, willingness to work hard; he makes his fortune by a stroke of good fortune; also exemplifies the morals of integrity, determination, and work

"Rags to Riches:"

situation in which a person rises from poverty to wealth, or sometimes from obscurity to fame. This is a common archetype in literature and popular culture (for example, the writings of Horatio Alger, Jr.).

John Dewey

developed progressive education; argued that children learn by constant encounter with their environment, constant adjustment to its facts and demands; pragmatism

Oliver Wendell Holmes

pragmatic ferment; expounded "legal realism;" interpreted the law as a practical instrument for dealing with public and private disputes rather than as a body of sacred, immutable principles passed down; the job of lawyers was to predict as best they could what judges would decide in particular cases and to advise their clients accordingly

Thorstein Veblen

a renowned economist; argued that businessmen were motivated by greed, that the economic system did not regulate itself by natural laws, and that government experts should develop policies for giving direction to the economy

Social Gospel

waves of religious revivalism; led by Dwight Moody; this revival was narrowly sectarian and took little interest in precise theology; its aim was to awaken the individual to an experience of faith at the beginning of personal renovation; the movement made for a great increase in church membership in the years to follow

Walter Rauschenbusch

a Baptist minister working in Hell's Kitchen in NYC; stated The Kingdom described in the Gospels is to be an earthly as well as a heavenly kingdom, a reign of justice and virtue

Lester Frank Ward

an American botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist. He served as the first president of the American Sociological Association.

Urban to rural migration

physical growth of rural or natural land into urban areas as a result of population in-migration to an existing urban area

Ellis Island

location of what was from January 1, 1892, until November 12, 1954 the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States


the influence the United States of America has on the culture of other countries, resulting in such phenomena as the substitution of a given culture with American culture

Thomas Nast

famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon


housed mainly poor immigrants; basically you know what this is

Dumbell Tenement

all new tenements were to have at least one window in every room and two water closets to a floor; had narrow air shafts on each side of the building, which became receptacles for garbage


tall, continuously habitable building

Immigration Restriction League

formed by a group of upper-class Bostonians; called for a literacy test that he League thought would exclude Slavic, Italian, and Hispanic immigrants while permitting the continued immigration of people from northern and western Europe

Central Park

large public, urban park in New York City

Frederick Law Olmstead

father of American landscape architecture, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City (Read Devil in the White City!!!)

William M. Tweed

(it says "W" instead of "M" on syllabus...)"Boss Tweed";an American politician most famous for his leadership of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York

Tammany Hall

the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably the Irish) rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s

George Washington Plunkitt

a long-time State Senator from the U.S. state of New York, representing the Fifteenth Assembly District, who was especially powerful in New York City. He was part of what is known as New York's Tammany Hall machine


the prostitution district of New Orleans, Louisiana, from 1897 through 1917

Jacob Riis

Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the less fortunate in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings and photographic essays

Morrill Act

passed by congress in 1862; donated 30000 acres of federal land to every state for each senator and representative it had in Congress; this land was to support at least one agricultural college in the state; mandated that all the colleges established on the basis of its grants be coeducational

Hatch Act

passed in 1887; appropriated to each state 15000 a year from public land sales for the establishment of an experimental station in order to further encouragement for agricultural research and development

Cyrus McCormick

produced the harvester, a piece of farm equipment

The Grange

Western and Midwestern farmers expressed their discontent through these. Created by Oliver Kelley; was created to sponsor lectures, dances, and picnics for farmers, who usually had a lonely existence; it soon became a militant political organization; organized cooperative buying schemes for farmers and sought to establish businesses run by farmers that could produce what they needed at moderate expense.

Munn v. Illinois

1877 Supreme Court Case; upheld the "Granger Laws."

Farmers' Alliances

farmers' groups; organized to keep up prices for their croups, to bring down prices of goods in country stores, and to resist the crop liens by which a creditor could seize part of a crop in payment of a debt; the Southern Alliance offered a more important role to women than did the northern alliances; leaders tried to merge the two regional groups into one nationwide organization

The People's Party

1889à farm Alliance leaders met at St. Louis to forge a political bond with the Knights of Labor; adopted a national platform endorsing greenbacks and free silver, economy in government, confiscation of excess railroad lands, and public ownership of the means of communication and transportation; in 1890, the first convention assembled in Omaha to select candidates and a platform for the 1892 election

Omaha Platform

a platform that summed up the outlook of the agrarian dissenters; demands for free and unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, government ownership of the railroads and the telephone and telegraph systems, a postal savings bank run by the government and designed for people of limited means, the secret ballot, direct election of United States senators, and restraints on immigration; favored direct democracy

Ignatius Donnelly

Minnesota editor and politician; wrote the Omaha platform preamble; prized silver coinage

James B. Weaver

nominated by the Omaha Platform-ers for President

Coxey's Army

a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey in Washington D.C. in 1894. Officially named the Commonweal in Christ. the first significant popular protest march on Washington

ethnocultural politics

pietist Republicans vs. liturgical Democrats. Pietists believed that government should promote morality and purify society while Liturgicals called for a pluralist society where more than one norm of conduct could be enjoyed.

Grover Cleveland

President... the only one to ever be elected for 2 non-consecutive terms. 22nd and 24th. Democratic. Did not like expansionism very much

James Garfield

president who was assassinated. Republican.

"gold bugs"

1896 William McKinley supporters. term used to describe investors who are very bullish on buying the commodity gold.

Battle of the Standards

a battle between England and the Scottish army on the 22 august 1138. England won

Depression of 1893

panic that made the economy slump. Many people did not like this depression and the isolationism that ensued and so they wanted imperialism to revive things. caused by railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing.

William Jennings Bryan

democratic candidate for president in 1896, 1900, and 1908, but never won. Famous for the Cross of Gold speech. Advocated bimetallism.

Cross of Gold

given by Bryan at the DNC in 1896 in support of free silver.

Realignment of 1896

during the election, America experienced the coming to power of a new coalition, replacing an old dominant coalition of the other party because McKinley won over Bryan. the rules of the game changed, the leaders were new, voting alignments changed, and a whole new set of issues came to dominance as the old Civil-War-Era issues faded away. Funding from office holders was replaced by outside fund raising from business. McKinley's tactics in beating Bryan marked a change in the evolution of the modern campaigning. McKinley raised a huge amount of money from business interests, outspending Bryan by 10 to 1. Bryan meanwhile invented the modern technique of campaigning heavily in closely contested states, the first candidate to do so. Bryan's message of populism and class conflict marked a new direction for the Democrats. McKinley's victory in 1896 and repeat in 1900 was a triumph for pluralism.

William McKinley

won the presidential elections of 1896 and 1900 but was assassinated. Republican.

Panama Canal

man-made canal in Panama which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Project completed by the United States in the early 1900s and the canal opened in 1914.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

a United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. His research into naval history led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890.

James G. Blaine

a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. a dominant Republican leader of the post-Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but losing to Cleveland.


a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests. Advocated by Blaine.

Queen Lilioukalani

the last queen of Hawaii before the was forced to abdicate by a coup organized by the white settlers there in 1893 due to allegations that her government had become too autocratic.

Venezuelan border dispute

british and Venezuelans always fought over the border between V. and British Guiana. The US stepped in on V.'s side because they thought it might be a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. But nothing ever happened because the problem was resolved without a war!

Pulitzer and Hearst

two big paper publishers who had a newspaper publicity fight and engendered a lot of popular sentiment and involvement.

yellow journalism

the term for the journalism during this time, sensationalist.

General Valeriano Weyler

a Spanish soldier. Captain-general in Philippines, then went back to spain and was rich. In Cuba he was called "Butcher Weyler" because hundreds of thousands of people died in his concentration camps.

Cuba Libre

slogan in America advocating the independence of cuba.

"Remember the Maine"

slogan in Spanish-American war referring to when the USS Maine was sunk in the Havana Harbor prior to the outbreak of the war.

"A Splendid Little War"

Sec of State John Hay's term of endearment for the S-A War.

Commodore Dewey

an admiral of the United States Navy, best known for his victory (without the loss of a single life of his own forces due to combat; one man died of heat stroke) at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He was also the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy. LOL, that is pretty cool!

Rough Riders

the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the United States' war with Spain and the only one of the three to see action.

Emilio Aguinaldo

the George Washington of the Philippines. a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role in Philippine independence during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. He eventually pledged his allegiance to the US government.

"White Man's Burden"

originates from the Rudyard Kipling poem. Meant that white men were supposed to go out and colonize, so that they could Christianize and ameliorate the conditions of the "lesser peoples."

Teller Amendment

an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 19, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." So independence.

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