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Exercise Testing and Stats
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Terms in this set (49)
What is statistcs?
involves the collection, organization, and analysis of numerical data
What is a test?
an instrument or a tool used to make a particular measurement
What is a measurement?
quantitative; process of assigning a number to a performance or an attribute of a person
What is a evaluation?
judgement about the measurement
What is a assessment?
the process (measure, evaluate, identify, and prescribe)
List the reasons for measurement, evaluation, and assessment.
motivation
diagnosis
classifications
achievement
evaluation
prediction
research
What are the reasons that we need statistics?
analyze and interpret data
interpret research
standardize test scores
determine worth
What is validity?
refers to the degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure
What is reliability?
refers to the consistency of a test
What is data?
the numerical result of measurement
What is a variable?
trait or characteristic of something that can assume more than one value
What is the population?
all subjects within a defined group
What is a sample?
part or subgroup of the population from which the measurements are actually obtained
What is a random sample?
one in which every subject in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
What is a parameter?
value, a measurable characteristic that refers to a population
What is a descriptive statistics?
methods used to describe a group, when every member of a group is measured and no attempt is made to generalize to a larger group
What is a inferential statistics?
a random sample is measured and projections or generalizations are made about a larger group, inferential statistics are used
What is discrete data?
measures that can have only separate values
What is continuous data?
measures that can have any value within a certain range
What is ungrouped data?
measures not arranged in any meaningful manner
What is grouped data?
measures arranged in some meaningful manner to facilitate calculations
What are the scales of measurement?
nominal (gender)
ordinal (finishing order)
interval (temperature or year)
ratio (height, weight, distance)
What are the characteristics of a normal curve?
bell-shaped curve
symmetrical distribution
greatest number of scores found in middle of curve
all measures of central tendency at vertical axis
What is the mean?
the average of a distribution of scores
(Ex: average on a group of test scores)
What is the median?
the score that represents the exact middle in the distribution
(Ex:
What is the mode?
the score that occurs most frequently
(Ex:
What is the order to put things in a chart?
1. make N column
2. list scores in descending order
3. sum X
4. mean, median, mode
5. X ^2 column
6. sum X^2
7. standard deviation
8. Z column
9. percent column
10. draw and interpret curve
What is correlation?
statistical technique used to express the relationship between two sets of scores
What is linear correlation?
degree to which a straight line best describes the relationship between two variables
What is the correlation coefficient?
the number that represents the correlation
What is a scattergram?
a graph used to illustrate the relationship between two variables
What are statistical significance?
reliability of the correlation coefficient should be considered
What does a positive number indicate?
a direct relationship
What does a negative number indicate?
a inverse relationship
When there are a bunch of different numbers what does it mean?
NO relationship
What is the Pearson Product-Moment?
aka Pearson r
used when measurement results are reported in interval
What is the significance of the correlation coefficient?
must test again because things can happen by chance
What are the p levels for significance of a correlation coefficient?
p< .05 to p<.01
What is the coefficient of determination?
the squaring of the correlation coefficient
- the proportion of variance in one variable that can be accounted for by the other variable
-Example: bench press compared to golf swing
What is negative correlation coefficient?
occasions when negative correlation are expected. when a lower score and a higher score are expected
What are dependent variable?
variable that is observed for changes as result of treatment
-the effected variable
What are independent variable?
treatment in the study that is controlled by the researcher
-the variable that causes the effect
What is a hypothesis?
a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables
What is the null hypothesis?
predicts there will be NO statistical difference between the means of groups
What is the alternative hypothesis?
two-tailed test
-predicts there will be a difference in means, it could be a positive or negative difference
What is the directional hypothesis?
one-tailed test
-predicts the means will either be negative or positive
What is t-test for independent groups?
used to determine the significance of the difference between two independent means NOT RELATED
-EX: different racial group but both male
What is t-test for dependent groups?
used to determine significant difference between two groups when two groups are related
-EX: same racial group
What is the analysis of variance (ANOVA)?
is used to test for significant difference among 3 or more means
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