Unit 8 APUSH IDs

On to the Present (the last two days of terms have not been done... they were Reagan and Bush and we didn't really think they were too important)
Election of 1960
JFK versus Nixon. JFK won, first Roman Catholic to be prez.
Kennedy's Inaugural Address
ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country
Bay of Pigs
an unsuccessful attempt by a U.S.-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from U.S. government armed forces to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in the early 1960s during the Cold War. In Russia, it is termed the "Caribbean Crisis" (Russian: Карибский кризис, Karibskiy krizis), while in Cuba it is called the "October Crisis". The crisis ranks with the Berlin Blockade as one of the major confrontations of the Cold War, and is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to a nuclear war.
Peace Corps
est by JFK and still exists. sends volunteers around the globe, to more than 70 countries, to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in the areas of education, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
Race for the Moon
Space Race. an informal competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to see who could make the furthest advancements into space first. It involved the efforts to explore outer space with artificial satellites, to send humans into space, and to land them on the Moon. effectively began after the Soviet Launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. continued through the U.S. Apollo moon landing of 1969.
Election of 1964
lbj vs goldwater and everyone thought goldwater was a creeper bc of crazy advertising so lbj won by a huge amount. No post-1964 Democratic candidate has, so far, managed to better LBJ's 1964 electoral result.
Barry Goldwater
republican candidate in 1964 election. was not successful.
tax reduction bill
JFK wanted to do this and then LBJ did it
Economic Opportunity Act
Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson on August 20, 1964. central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Implemented by the since disbanded Office of Economic Opportunity, the Act included several social programs to promote the health, education, and general welfare of the poor. most programs from it are gone but ones remaining include Head Start, and Job Corps. Remaining War on Poverty programs are managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services's Office of Community Services and the U.S. Department of Labor.
"war on poverty"
the name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to the difficult economic conditions associated with a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. led to econ opportunity act. part of great society.
federal aid to education
like work study programs and loans for college. also for primary and secondary education there were improvements.
a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. Medicare operates as a single-payer health care system. enacted by social security act in 1965 under lbj.
Water Quality Act/Clean Water Restoration Act
the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. established the symbolic goals of eliminating releases to water of high amounts of toxic substances, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983.
Immigration and Nationality Act
1965. eliminated the discriminatory stuff. abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. It was proposed by Emanuel Celler, co-sponsored by Philip Hart and heavily supported by United States Senator Ted Kennedy.
Warren Court
supreme court when Ed Warren was the chief justice. was super liberal probably the most liberal ever. between 1953 and 1969.
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys or lawyers.
Baker v. Carr
a landmark United States Supreme Court case that retreated from the Court's political question doctrine, deciding that reapportionment (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of legislative districts is a "political question," and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts.
Miranda v. Arizona
est. "Miranda Rights"- right to remain silent. a landmark 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court which was argued February 28-March 1, 1966 and decided June 13, 1966. The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them.
`Brown v. Board of Education
overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This victory paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement
Thurgood Marshall
an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Before becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. He was nominated to the court by President Lyndon Johnson in 1967.
Little Rock Nine
a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. we went to central high and it was tiiight!
Montgomery Bus Boycott
a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. It also had many important people that were all involved in eliminating bus segregation, such as Martin Luther King Jr., and others, as listed below. This caused deficits in public transit profits because a large percentage of people who used the public transportation were now boycotting it. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
Freedom Rides
rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, (1960). The first Freedom Ride left Washington D.C. on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
nonviolent resistance
the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. MLK advocated this.
a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. Sit-ins were an integral part of the non-violent strategy of civil disobedience that nearly ended racial segregation in the United States. started in Greensboro.
James Meredith
an American civil rights movement figure. He was the first African-American student at the University of Mississippi, an event that was a flash point in the American civil rights movement.
"bombingham", church bombing, children's march, King's letter from a Birmingham jail
March on Washington
a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. a. Philip Randolph.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibited states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." specifically no literacy tests. signed into law by lbj.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April of 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 a week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, the Freedom Summer, and the MFDP. young people.
Freedom Summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only regular Democratic Party.
urban riots
in reaction to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. often inner city. John F. McDonald and Daniel P. McMillen have identified the Watts Riots, Los Angeles, 1965, as the first "urban riots" in the US. RACE RIOTS during the civil war.
Black Power
emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, advance black values, and secure black autonomy. a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of separate social institutions and a self-sufficient economy (separatism help usher in black radical thought, and action against white supremacy. Black Power adherents believe in Black autonomy, with a variety of tendencies such as black nationalism, and black separatism. Often Black Power advocates are open to use violence as a means of achieving their aims, but this openness to violence was nearly always coupled with community organizing work. CONFLICTED with civil rights.
Black Panthers
an African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.The Black Panther Party achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Panther Party was an auxillary of the greater movement, often coined the Black Power Movement. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.
Attica prison riot
occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States in 1971. based in part upon prisoners' demands for better living conditions. At the time, inmates were given one shower per week and one roll of toilet paper a month. On September 9, 1971, responding to the death of prisoner George Jackson, a black radical prisoner who had been shot to death by corrections officers in California's San Quentin Prison on August 21 while armed and attempting to escape, about 1,000 of the prison's approximately 2,200 prisoners rioted and seized control of the prison, taking thirty-three correction officers hostage. The State began negotiating with the prisoners. During the following four days of negotiations, authorities agreed to 28 of the prisoners' demands, but would not agree to demands for complete amnesty from criminal prosecution for the prison takeover, or for the removal of Attica's superintendent. Under order of then Governor Nelson Rockefeller, state police took back control of the prison. When the uprising was over at least 39 people were dead, including ten correction officers and civilian employees.
Ho Chi Minh
organized Vietnamese Communist Party and was Communist leader of Vietnam from 1945 through the Vietnam War
Dien Bien Phu
battle fought between the Việt Minh (led by Vo Nguyen Giap), and the United States-backed French Union
Geneva Accords
granted independence to the three Indochinese states of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. The U.S. did not sign it
Ngo Dinh Diem
President of Southern Vietnam. U.S. supported and Eisenhower pledged vast economic and military aid to him, which wasn't good because he built a corrupt personalist regime with the American money
Southern insurrectionists of Vietnam joined this newly organized Communist National Liberation Front and many took the trek north for military training
a national liberation movement which dated its foundation to May 19 1941 in South China. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from France and later to oppose the Japanese occupation.
forces of the NLF dubbed by Diem. "Vietnamese Communists"
Gulf of Tonkin
in August of 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson said that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although there was a first attack, claims of a second attack were later said to be exaggerated or unfounded. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this led to the open involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
what LBJ's policy was for the vietnam war.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
the only truly significant target available for attack on North Vietnam, which stretched into Laos and from Laos into the northern reaches of South Vietnam, the main thoroughfare for North Vietnam's shipment of troops and supplies to South Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
a military campaign conducted between 30 January and 23 September 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong, or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, and the North Vietnamese army, or People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies during the Vietnam War. Success for South Vietnam
My Lai
the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens in South Vietnam, entirely civilians and some of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces
Kent and Jackson State Massacres
college students protesting were killed by police... brutal sad and in everyones memories to this day.
A Nixon campaign thing idk no good definition
Eugene McCarthy
In the 1968 presidential election, McCarthy was the first candidate to challenge incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson for the Democratic nomination for president of the United States, running on an anti-Vietnam War platform; the unexpected degree of success he achieved in the New Hampshire primary led Johnson to withdraw from the race, and brought Robert F. Kennedy into the contest. He would unsuccessfully seek the presidency five times altogether.
Robert Kennedy
After Eugene McCarthy nearly defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire primary in early 1968, Kennedy announced his own campaign for president, seeking the nomination of the Democratic Party. Kennedy defeated McCarthy in the critical California primary but was shot shortly after midnight of June 5, 1968, dying on June 6. On June 9, President Johnson assigned security staff to all Presidential candidates and declared an official day of national mourning in response to the public grief following Kennedy's death. He was very handsome.
Hubert Humphrey
In a renowned speech, Humphrey told the 1948 Democratic National Convention, "The time has arrived in America for the Democratic Party to get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights," winning support for a pro-civil rights plank in the Party's platform. VP Under Johnson
Democratic Convention in 1968
had a significant amount of protest activity. For eight days, protesters and police battled for control of the streets of Chicago, whilst the Democratic Party met at the convention. Hubert Humphrey won the nomination
Nixon Doctrine
said we would contribute to foreign wars not through troops but more through allies. pursuit of peace through partnership.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks with Russia that Nixon did
détente with China and the Soviet Union
general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and China and the United States a thawing of the Cold War, occurring from the late 1960s until the start of the 1980s.
when prices of goods and services rise and the value of money declines
welfare reform
Nixon did this. He wanted it to be more about giving a lot of people money and they could choose what to do with it
Nixon Court
under Burger. was more conservative but still issued radical things like Roe V Wade
Apollo 11
the first manned mission to land on the Moon. It was the fifth human spaceflight of Project Apollo and the third human voyage to the Moon. It was also the second all-veteran crew in manned spaceflight history. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above.
wage and price controls
called incomes policies. response to inflation. set limits for these below market value.
1972 Election
Nixon won in a landslide against McGovern
Nixon's "plumbers" had been bugging the DNC and they tried to burglarize the place but everyone found out. led to Nixon's resignation because it was a big scandal. im sure you know what this ID is lol!
Committee to Re-elect the President. was a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration. Besides its re-election activities, CREEP employed money laundering and slush funds and was directly and actively involved in the Watergate scandal.
Pentagon Papers
scandalous leaked top-secret Vietnam files that Nixon tried to cover up even though they were from other administrations. officially titled United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, were a top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Commissioned by United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1967, the study was completed in 1968. The papers first surfaced on the front page on the New York Times in 1971.
"smoking gun"
a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act. In addition to this, its meaning has evolved in uses completely unrelated to criminal activity: for example, scientific evidence that is highly suggestive in favor of a particular hypothesis is sometimes called smoking gun evidence.
Fall of Saigon
the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the North Vietnamese army on April 30, 1975. marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam under communist rule.
inflation plus recession
Energy Crisis
in 1973 OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo. an oil price shock and a stock market crash
"political outsider"
I actually don't know... does this mean like a maverick? lol
Carter and Human Rights
he really tried to emphasize them. negotiated a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1979. he established the Carter Center after his presidency. then he got the Nobel Peace Prize wow
the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces. Deregulation does not mean elimination of laws against fraud, but eliminating or reducing government control of how business is done, thereby moving toward a more free market.
Camp David Accords
signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. They also resulted in Sadat and Begin sharing the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
controversial experiment of negotiations between Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev from 1972 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. It was a continuation of the progress made during the SALT I talks. SALT II was the first nuclear arms treaty which assumed real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories of delivery vehicles on both sides. SALT II helped the U.S. to discourage the Soviets from arming their third generation ICBMs of SS-17, SS-19 and SS-18 types with many more MIRVs.
Panama Canal Treaty
Carter handed the canal to Panama. received criticism for this from Americans
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and US responses
a nine-year conflict involving Soviet Union forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government against the mujahideen resistance. I think we supported the Afghanistan people
Iranian hostage crisis
a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 U.S. diplomats were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian revolution. reached a climax when after failed attempts to negotiate a release, the United States military attempted a rescue operation, Operation Eagle Claw, on April 24, 1980, which resulted in an aborted mission, the crash of two aircraft and the deaths of eight American service members and one Iranian civilian. It ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, 1981. The hostages were formally released into United States custody the following day, just minutes after the new American president Ronald Reagan was sworn in.