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49 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 6 Flashcards

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Agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Animal Domestication
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Plant Domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Shifiting Cultivation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left uncultivated for a relatively long period
Subsistence Farming
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Thunian Patterns
the patterns described in von thunen's agricultural model (the rings)
Cadastral System
patterns of settlement and land use that delineates property lines
Dispersed Settlement
characterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
Folk-housing Region
a reigion in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
Functional Differentiation
A mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.
Hamlet
a community of people smaller than a village
Long-lot Survey
system that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers,roads, or canals
Maladaptive Diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
Metes and Gounds Survey
Approach adopted along the eastern seaboard, in which natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land
Nucleated Settlement
a compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
Primogeniture
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Rectangular Land Survey
System that was adopted by the U.S. Government & divides land into rectangular parcels
Township-and-Range System
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Village
a community of people smaller than a town
Wattle
framework consisting of stakes interwoven with branches to form a fence
Agribusiness
a large-scale farming enterprise
Biotechnology
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
Commerical Agriculture
The growing of crops for sale-farms are large and use modern technolgy
Green Revolution
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Luxury Crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Organic Agriculture
crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
Plantation Agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
Agent
Disease-causing organisms ranging from microscopic, one-celled protozoa to parasitic worms and insects.
AIDS
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
Chronic Disease
a disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time
Contagious Disease
any disease easily transmitted by contact
Endemic
native to or confined to a certain region
Epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Genetic Diseases
Diseases such as Hemophilia, Downs Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Anemia that result when genetic instructions in the DNA become confused as a result of genetic mutations.
Hidden Hunger
Getting enough calories but not enough nutrition.
Hosts
the organism in which the parasite lives in or on.
Infectious Disease
a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact
Influenza
an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
Malaria
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
Malnutrition
a state of poor nutrition
Medical Geography
the study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.
Pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
Reservoir
tank used for collecting and storing a liquid (as water or oil)
Vector
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components
Yellow Fever
caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito