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111 terms

AP US History Ch 1- 12

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One of the important factors that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was the
Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia
Among the most important American Indian products or discoveries spread to the Old World were foodstuffs such as
corn, beans, and tomatoes
Even before the discovery of the Americas, Portugal became the first nation to enter the slave trade and establish large-scale plantations using slave labor
in the sugar islands off the coast of Africa
England's first two North American colonies, which completely failed, were launched in
Newfoundland and North Carolina
England's first colony at Jamestown
was saved from failure by John Smith's leadership and by John Rolfe's introduction of tobacco
Representative government was first introduced to the Americas in the colony of
Virginia
One important difference between the founding of the Virginia and Maryland colonies was that Virginia
was founded as a strictly economic venture, while Maryland was intended partly to secure religious freedom for persecuted Roman Catholics
The principal motivation shaping the earliest settlements in New England was
economic opportunity and the chance for a better life.
Compared with the Plymouth Colony, the Massachusetts Bay Colony
was larger and more prosperous economically
The essential heresy that caused Anne Hutchinson to be convicted and banished from Massachusetts Bay was her declared belief that
she had received a direct revelation from God that the saved did not need to obey either human or divine law
King Philip's war represented the
last major Indian effort to halt New Englanders' encroachment on their lands
The primary beneficiaries of the head-right system were
well-off planters who acquired land by paying the transatlantic passage for indentured servants
The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was
the poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land
African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680s when
Bacon's rebellion and rising wages in England made white indentured servants no longer a reliable labor force
Most of the slaves who eventually reached North America were originally
captured by West African coastal tribes and sold to European slave merchants
The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to
the development of basic ideas of democracy as expressed in the New England town meeting
The Half-Way Covenant provided
a baptism, but not full communion, to people who had not had a conversion experience
The original cause of the French and Indian war was
competition between French and English colonists for land in the Ohio River valley
The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as
the Seven Years' War
Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity at the Albany Congress resulted in
rejection of the congress's proposal for colonial home rule both by London and the colonies
The British forces suffered crushing early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of
General Braddock.
The decisive event in the French-British contest for North America was the
British victory in Quebec
Among the factors that tended to promote British colonists' intercolonial unity during the French and Indian War was
their common language and shared wartime experience
The French and Indian War weakened interior Indian peoples like the Iroquois and Creeks by
removing their French and Spanish allies from Canada and Florida
The most significant effect on the colonists of the French defeat in North America was
to reduce the colonies' reliance on Britain for protection and increase their sense of independence
The radical Whigs feared
The arbitrary power of the monarchy
Mercantilists believed that
A country's economic wealth could be measured by the amounts of gold and silver in its treasury
Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except
Become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible
The first Navigation Laws were designed to
Eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade
Under the Mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except
Prevent the colonies from developing militias
Before 1763, the Navigation Laws
Were only loosely enforced in the American colonies
Despite the benifits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because it
Kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence
In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because
They stifled economic initiative
all of the following were direct benefits reaped by the Americans from mercantile system of Britain
British allowed the Americans to freely trade with other countries and compete on the open market
Match each act below with the correct description
Sugar Act - First British law intended to raise revenues in the colonies
Stamp Act - Generated the most protest in the colonies
Declaratory Act - Asserted Parliaments absolute power over the colonies
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the
Sugar Act
The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to
Raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense
Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act
Convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty
Unlike the ___ Act, the _____ Act and the ____ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American port
Stamp, Sugar, Townsend
Arrange the following events in chronological order: Sugar Act, Declaratory Act, Stamp Act, Repeal of the Stamp Act
Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Repeal of the Stamp Act Declaratory Act
Colonist objected to Stamp Act because
Parliament passes the tax, not the colonist
When colonist shouted "No taxation without represention" they were rejecting Parliaments power to
Levy revenue- raising taxes on the colonists
All of the following were actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite except
Acceptance of Navigation Laws
All off the following were examples of colonial protest against the Stamp Act except
colonial legislatures issuing a court mandate forbidding the enforcement of the act
As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts
British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order
The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously then the Stamp Act because
They were light and indirect
The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because
it kept alive the principal of parliamentary taxation
When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists
Suspected that it was a trick t get them to violate their principal of "No taxation with out representation"
The Olive Branch Petition
Professed American loyalty to the crown
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to
explain the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted
Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense
Called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic
Thomas Paine argued that all government officials
Should derive their authority from popular consent
The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for American because it
Brought the colonists much- needed aid and a formal alliance with French
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
All states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government
The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned
Western lands
The Articales of Confederation left Congress unable to
Enforce a tax- collection program
A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its
Presentation of the ideal of a united nation
Shays's Rebellion was provoked by
Foreclosures on the mortgages of back country farmers
Shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for
A stronger central government
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states
Convinced many that a stronger central government was needed
The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how
Reconcile states' rights with strong national government
The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was
James Madison
The antifederalist camp included all of the following groups except
Supporters of a strong central government
Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those people who opposed it
Absence of a bill of rights
Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was
Possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory
Anitfederalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government
Legislative
Federalist believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government
Executive, Legislative, Judicial
The Bill of Rights was intended to protect _____ against the potential tyranny of _______
Individual liberties, A strong central government
One of the first jobs facing the new government, formed under the Constitution, was to
Draw up and pass a bill of rights
All the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except
The right to vote for all citizens
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in the southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government
Levied an excise tax on whiskey
Match each political leader with his positions on public policy in the 1790s
Hamilton 1. Privileges for the upper class
2. Pro- British 4. Potent central government
6. Government support for business
Jefferson 3. Sympathy for the common people
5. Pay off the national debt 7. Pro- French
8. Universal education
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in
The formation of permanent political parties
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) XYZ affair, (B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, and (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
(B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, (A) XYZ affair, (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
In Jay's Treaty, the British
Promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest
John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain
Created deeper splits between Federalists an Democratic- Republicans
Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions except
A promise by the British to stop selling arms to Indians
The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United State and France was
The XYZ affair
The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to
Silence and punish critics of the Federalists
The Federalists- dominated Congress's Alien Act was aimed at ____, whereas the Sedition Acts was primarily aimed at _____
Recent immigrants, Newspapers
The sedition Acts
Threatened First American freedoms
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to
The Alien and Sedition Acts
According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislaton passed by Congress lay with
The Supreme Court
Federalist advocated rule by
The best people
Federalists strongly supported
Law and Order
Hamilton Federalists advocated
A strong central government
Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which
The states retained the majority of political power
Jeffersonians believed in all of the following except
Every adult white male's right to vote
Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by
Continuing slavery
The Battle of New Orleans
Saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers
The Battle of New Orleans
Saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers
The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that demanded all of the following excepts
A guarantee of no future wars with Britain
The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for
A Constitutional amendment requiring a two- thirds vote in Congress before war was declared
The resolutions from the Hartford Convention
Helped to cause the death of the Federalist party
The outcome of the War of 1812 was a
Stimulus to patriotic nationalism in the United States
the Rush- Bagot agreement
Limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes
The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history
That aimed to protect American industry
Henry Clay's call for federally funded roads and canals received whole- hearted endorsement from
The West
Democratic- Republicans opposes Henry Clay's American System because
They believed that it was unconstitutional
With the demise of the Federalist party
The Democratic- Republicans established one- party rule
As result of the Missouri Compromise
Slavery was banned north of 36' 30' in the Louisiana Purchase territory
John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "power to tax involves the power to destroy" in
McCulloch v. Maryland
In the case of Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Chief Justice John Marshall's rulings
Erected barriers against democratic attacks on property
In McCulloh v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall's rulings limited the extent of
States' rights
John Marshall's rulings almost single- handedly shaped Constitutional interpretation in the direction of
Nationalistic centralism and conservation
John Marshall's ruling upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in
Fletcher v. Peck
The United states' most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was
John Quincy Adams
The doctrine of non-colonization in the Monroe Doctrine was
A response to the apparent designs of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon
At the time it was issue, the Monroe Doctrine was
Incapable of being enforced by the United States
Latin America's reaction to the Monroe Doctrine can be described as
Unconcerned or unimpressed
The Monroe Doctrine was
An expression of illusion of deepening American isolationism from the world affairs