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One of the important factors that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was the

Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia

Among the most important American Indian products or discoveries spread to the Old World were foodstuffs such as

corn, beans, and tomatoes

Even before the discovery of the Americas, Portugal became the first nation to enter the slave trade and establish large-scale plantations using slave labor

in the sugar islands off the coast of Africa

England's first two North American colonies, which completely failed, were launched in

Newfoundland and North Carolina

England's first colony at Jamestown

was saved from failure by John Smith's leadership and by John Rolfe's introduction of tobacco

Representative government was first introduced to the Americas in the colony of


One important difference between the founding of the Virginia and Maryland colonies was that Virginia

was founded as a strictly economic venture, while Maryland was intended partly to secure religious freedom for persecuted Roman Catholics

The principal motivation shaping the earliest settlements in New England was

economic opportunity and the chance for a better life.

Compared with the Plymouth Colony, the Massachusetts Bay Colony

was larger and more prosperous economically

The essential heresy that caused Anne Hutchinson to be convicted and banished from Massachusetts Bay was her declared belief that

she had received a direct revelation from God that the saved did not need to obey either human or divine law

King Philip's war represented the

last major Indian effort to halt New Englanders' encroachment on their lands

The primary beneficiaries of the head-right system were

well-off planters who acquired land by paying the transatlantic passage for indentured servants

The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was

the poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land

African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680s when

Bacon's rebellion and rising wages in England made white indentured servants no longer a reliable labor force

Most of the slaves who eventually reached North America were originally

captured by West African coastal tribes and sold to European slave merchants

The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to

the development of basic ideas of democracy as expressed in the New England town meeting

The Half-Way Covenant provided

a baptism, but not full communion, to people who had not had a conversion experience

The original cause of the French and Indian war was

competition between French and English colonists for land in the Ohio River valley

The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as

the Seven Years' War

Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity at the Albany Congress resulted in

rejection of the congress's proposal for colonial home rule both by London and the colonies

The British forces suffered crushing early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of

General Braddock.

The decisive event in the French-British contest for North America was the

British victory in Quebec

Among the factors that tended to promote British colonists' intercolonial unity during the French and Indian War was

their common language and shared wartime experience

The French and Indian War weakened interior Indian peoples like the Iroquois and Creeks by

removing their French and Spanish allies from Canada and Florida

The most significant effect on the colonists of the French defeat in North America was

to reduce the colonies' reliance on Britain for protection and increase their sense of independence

The radical Whigs feared

The arbitrary power of the monarchy

Mercantilists believed that

A country's economic wealth could be measured by the amounts of gold and silver in its treasury

Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except

Become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible

The first Navigation Laws were designed to

Eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade

Under the Mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except

Prevent the colonies from developing militias

Before 1763, the Navigation Laws

Were only loosely enforced in the American colonies

Despite the benifits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because it

Kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence

In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because

They stifled economic initiative

all of the following were direct benefits reaped by the Americans from mercantile system of Britain

British allowed the Americans to freely trade with other countries and compete on the open market

Match each act below with the correct description

Sugar Act - First British law intended to raise revenues in the colonies
Stamp Act - Generated the most protest in the colonies
Declaratory Act - Asserted Parliaments absolute power over the colonies

The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the

Sugar Act

The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to

Raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense

Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act

Convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty

Unlike the ___ Act, the _____ Act and the ____ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American port

Stamp, Sugar, Townsend

Arrange the following events in chronological order: Sugar Act, Declaratory Act, Stamp Act, Repeal of the Stamp Act

Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Repeal of the Stamp Act Declaratory Act

Colonist objected to Stamp Act because

Parliament passes the tax, not the colonist

When colonist shouted "No taxation without represention" they were rejecting Parliaments power to

Levy revenue- raising taxes on the colonists

All of the following were actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite except

Acceptance of Navigation Laws

All off the following were examples of colonial protest against the Stamp Act except

colonial legislatures issuing a court mandate forbidding the enforcement of the act

As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts

British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order

The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously then the Stamp Act because

They were light and indirect

The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because

it kept alive the principal of parliamentary taxation

When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists

Suspected that it was a trick t get them to violate their principal of "No taxation with out representation"

The Olive Branch Petition

Professed American loyalty to the crown

One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to

explain the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted

Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense

Called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic

Thomas Paine argued that all government officials

Should derive their authority from popular consent

The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for American because it

Brought the colonists much- needed aid and a formal alliance with French

The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when

All states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government

The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned

Western lands

The Articales of Confederation left Congress unable to

Enforce a tax- collection program

A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its

Presentation of the ideal of a united nation

Shays's Rebellion was provoked by

Foreclosures on the mortgages of back country farmers

Shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for

A stronger central government

Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states

Convinced many that a stronger central government was needed

The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how

Reconcile states' rights with strong national government

The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was

James Madison

The antifederalist camp included all of the following groups except

Supporters of a strong central government

Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those people who opposed it

Absence of a bill of rights

Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was

Possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory

Anitfederalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government


Federalist believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government

Executive, Legislative, Judicial

The Bill of Rights was intended to protect _____ against the potential tyranny of _______

Individual liberties, A strong central government

One of the first jobs facing the new government, formed under the Constitution, was to

Draw up and pass a bill of rights

All the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except

The right to vote for all citizens

The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in the southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government

Levied an excise tax on whiskey

Match each political leader with his positions on public policy in the 1790s

Hamilton 1. Privileges for the upper class
2. Pro- British 4. Potent central government
6. Government support for business
Jefferson 3. Sympathy for the common people
5. Pay off the national debt 7. Pro- French
8. Universal education

Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in

The formation of permanent political parties

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) XYZ affair, (B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, and (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions

(B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, (A) XYZ affair, (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions

In Jay's Treaty, the British

Promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest

John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain

Created deeper splits between Federalists an Democratic- Republicans

Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions except

A promise by the British to stop selling arms to Indians

The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United State and France was

The XYZ affair

The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to

Silence and punish critics of the Federalists

The Federalists- dominated Congress's Alien Act was aimed at ____, whereas the Sedition Acts was primarily aimed at _____

Recent immigrants, Newspapers

The sedition Acts

Threatened First American freedoms

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to

The Alien and Sedition Acts

According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislaton passed by Congress lay with

The Supreme Court

Federalist advocated rule by

The best people

Federalists strongly supported

Law and Order

Hamilton Federalists advocated

A strong central government

Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which

The states retained the majority of political power

Jeffersonians believed in all of the following except

Every adult white male's right to vote

Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by

Continuing slavery

The Battle of New Orleans

Saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers

The Battle of New Orleans

Saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers

The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that demanded all of the following excepts

A guarantee of no future wars with Britain

The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for

A Constitutional amendment requiring a two- thirds vote in Congress before war was declared

The resolutions from the Hartford Convention

Helped to cause the death of the Federalist party

The outcome of the War of 1812 was a

Stimulus to patriotic nationalism in the United States

the Rush- Bagot agreement

Limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes

The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history

That aimed to protect American industry

Henry Clay's call for federally funded roads and canals received whole- hearted endorsement from

The West

Democratic- Republicans opposes Henry Clay's American System because

They believed that it was unconstitutional

With the demise of the Federalist party

The Democratic- Republicans established one- party rule

As result of the Missouri Compromise

Slavery was banned north of 36' 30' in the Louisiana Purchase territory

John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "power to tax involves the power to destroy" in

McCulloch v. Maryland

In the case of Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Chief Justice John Marshall's rulings

Erected barriers against democratic attacks on property

In McCulloh v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall's rulings limited the extent of

States' rights

John Marshall's rulings almost single- handedly shaped Constitutional interpretation in the direction of

Nationalistic centralism and conservation

John Marshall's ruling upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in

Fletcher v. Peck

The United states' most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was

John Quincy Adams

The doctrine of non-colonization in the Monroe Doctrine was

A response to the apparent designs of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon

At the time it was issue, the Monroe Doctrine was

Incapable of being enforced by the United States

Latin America's reaction to the Monroe Doctrine can be described as

Unconcerned or unimpressed

The Monroe Doctrine was

An expression of illusion of deepening American isolationism from the world affairs

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