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75 terms

MVUSD 8th History CST Review

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Why did Stone Age people practice slash-and burn
agriculture?
to clear land for farming
Which development most enabled early peoples
to form permanent settlements?
advances in agricultural production
Hammurabi's Code of ancient Mesopotamian
society was important because it
listed the laws and the corresponding punishments.
The art and architecture of ancient Egypt were
designed to emphasize the
religious idea of eternal life.
Cuneiform and hieroglyphics were important
achievements in the development of
written language.
The Ten Commandments of the ancient
Hebrews has had the greatest influence on the development of Western
moral and ethical teachings.
Jewish scripture says that God's laws were delivered to the ancient Hebrews by
Moses.
Greece's mountainous terrain and its series of
small islands influenced the ancient Greeks to develop
a political system based on independent city-states.
Ancient Athenians valued individual participation in
political process of the city-state.
The legacy of ancient Greek myths and
epics, such as the Iliad, continues to provide
people with
heroic figures and great adventures.
Ancient Greeks used myths about their gods
primarily to
explain events in the natural world.
How did the rise to power and reign of
Alexander most affect Greece?
He ended the power of the city-states and established a unifi ed nation.
The Chinese people turned to the teachings of
Confucius because his ideas were thought to
help
restore order in China.
What was the main contribution of Emperor
Shi Huangdi to China?
He unified most of China under one government.
The origins of checks and balances in the
U.S. political system can be traced to the
Roman Republic.
The wars with Carthage (264-146 B.C.) gave
the Roman Empire control of
North Africa.
In the 700s A.D., Arabian merchants played an
important role in
spreading new technology among Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Which shows the importance the Mongols
placed on improving trade contacts with other
civilizations?
the establishment of caravan routes
How was paper
introduced into medieval Europe?
The Chinese introduced it to the Arabs, who passed it on to Europeans.
How did the location of cities in the West
African empires of Ghana and Mali infl uence their growth?
Their location on major trade routes allowed them to prosper economically.
Endurance, cunning, physical strength, and
courage were the ideal characteristics of
Japanese samurai.
In medieval Europe, law and order were
maintained by the
nobility.
During medieval times, which group
was legally tied to the land?
serfs.
D uring the medieval period in Europe, the
political power of the kings and great nobles
was often constrained by the actions of
high Church officials.
How did the Crusades affect the economies of Central and Western Europe?
Cloth and spices brought back by crusaders led to greater interest in trade.
What deadly disease spread throughout Europe in the fourteenth century
bubonic plague
Which characteristic did Aztec and Incan
societies share?
complex religious ceremonies
What was the main cause of the drastic population
change in Central Mexico in the early 1500's?
the introduction of disease by contact with Europeans
The Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations each
developed
complex architectural structures.
The stories from Marco Polo's travels
encouraged Europeans to
journey to Asia in search of wealth.
Who was given the title of "Renaissance Man" for his work as a painter, architect, mathematician, and inventor?
Leonardo da Vinci
The poems and plays of which person are
representative of the English Renaissance?
William Shakespeare
England became a Protestant country during
the Reformation when its
king declared himself head of the Church of England.
heretics
those who hold to a belief opposed to the established teachings of a church
Spanish Inquisition
An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.
The findings of Galileo and Newton were
significant because, from their time on,
scientific thought was based upon
observation and experimentation.
The systematic collection and articulation of
natural laws, such as gravity and motion, was done by
Isaac Newton.
The "Triangle Trade" and "Columbian
Exchange" are terms used to describe the movement of goods between Western Europe, West Africa, and
the Americas.
The Scientific Revolution contributed to
Enlightenment thought by influencing people to
believe in the power of human reason.
Which form of restrictive government would Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke most oppose?
dictatorship
What were both the Magna Carta and the
English Bill of Rights designed to do?
limit the power of the monarch
The Great Awakening of the mid-1700s affected
the British colonies by
encouraging greater religious enthusiasm and political independence.
One goal of the Declaration of Independence
was to
explain why the colonists felt the need to be free from British rule.
In designing the legislative branch, the writers
of the Constitution mainly based their ideas on the
English Parliament.
The Mayflower Compact (1620) was signifi cant
in the political development of the American colonies because it introduced the principle of
self-government.
Which of these Founders favored a strong
national government and a loose interpretation
of the United States Constitution?
Alexander Hamilton
Which of these parts of the United States
Constitution contains fundamental liberties of American citizens?
Amendments 1-10 — Bill of Rights
Which of these groups most likely supported
the political ideas and policies of Alexander Hamilton?
business owners
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed
Alexander Hamilton's tariff policy in part because they believed that high tariffs would cause problems for
small farmers.
Shays' Rebellion of 1786 resulted in increased
support for
revising the Articles of Confederation.
Which of the following acquisitions secured
control of North America's longest river and essentially doubled the size of the United States?
Louisiana Purchase
In his Farewell Address, George Washington
urged the American people to
value and maintain a sense of national unity and not create factions/ political parties
Conflict with Mexico became highly likely
following the granting of statehood to
Texas.
What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
(1823)?
to prevent European expansion in the
Americas
Which statement best describes the location
of factories in New England during the early 1800s?
They were located next to rivers.
During the 1800s, the movement of large
numbers of immigrants from many different countries into large American cities resulted in the rapid growth of
ethnic neighborhoods and crowded cities.
What agricultural invention, designed to
increase production, had the effect of increasing the number of slaves needed for labor in the Deep South?
the cotton gin
The growing importance of cotton to the South
created an economy and a society dominated by
large landowners.
The slave-based agricultural system in the
South encouraged the development of
a rigid social class system.
Prior to the Civil War, which group had the
most political power in the South?
plantation owners
"Go west, young man, and grow up with the country." This quote is associated with
Manifest Destiny.
By the mid-1800s, California was being settled mostly by people in search of
wealth from the discovery of gold.
The Indian Removal Act (1830) relocated thousands of Cherokees from Georgia to Indian Territory for the purpose of
making the land available for white miners and farmers.
While the American colonies were fi ghting a
revolution against England and forming a new
nation, New Spain was establishing new settlements in California using what type of system?
mission
Who was the most important leader of the
Underground Railroad?
Harriet Tubman
The main goal of abolitionists like William
Lloyd Garrison was to
end slavery immediately.
Which state was admitted as
a state as a result of the Compromise of 1850?
California
What led the newspapers to speak of "Bleeding
Kansas" in 1856?
fighting between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces
Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is
similar to the Declaration of Independence in that both documents
support the ideals of self-government and human rights.
What was the first major goal of President
Abraham Lincoln's administration?
to maintain the unity of the country
What is one reason that the Union strategy for
defeating the South included a naval blockade of Southern ports?
to prevent Southern efforts to sell cotton in Europe in exchange for war supplies
One goal of post-Civil War Congressional Reconstruction was to
ensure civil rights for former slaves.
During Reconstruction, the Freedmen's Bureau
established schools for former slaves.
The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States were intended to solve problems relating to
civil rights.
A large percentage of the immigrants who came to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries settled in large cities because
the growing industries and jobs were usually located in cities.