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Flashcards for the first review packet that we did in class.

same number of ..... but different number of ...

protons; neutrons

number of neutrons and number of electrons

atomic number

1st degree structure of proteins


2nd degree structure of proteins


3rd degree structure of proteins


4th degree structure of proteins


monomer of carbohydrates


polymer of carbohydrates


functions of carbohydrates

energy, structure

examples of carbohydrates

starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin, peptidogylcan

elements carbohydrates are composed of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

monomer of proteins

amino acids

polymer of proteins


functions of proteins

transports, supports, metabolizes, defense, motion, regulation

examples of proteins

kerotine, actin, colegin, myocine

elements proteins are composed of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

monomer of lipids

fatty acid and gylcerol

polymer of lipids

triglyceride, phospholipids, fats, oils, waxes

functions of lipids

stabilization, structure of membrane

examples of lipids

fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids

elements lipids are composed of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

monomer of nucleic acids


polymer of nucleic acids


functions of nucleic acids

ATP, bases of DNA

examples of nucleic acids

guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine, uracil

elements nucleic acids are composed of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphate

what are nucleotides composed of?

phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogen base

what is the universal solvent?

pure water

examples of acids

stomach acid, black coffee, tomatoes, lemons

examples of bases

sodium hydroxide, household ammonia

hydrogen ions are what type of solution? (acidic or basic)


hydroxide ions are what type of solution? (acidic or basic)


ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding. what is this?


water molecules cling to other polar surfaces. what is this?


water has this:

a high heat capacity

when H2O freezes, its volume increases. what is this called?


bonds within a water molecule

polar covalent

bonds between water molecules

hydrogen bonds

what is the pH of blood?


chemical reaction in blood:

H4 + HCO3

what is a chemical (or a combination of chemicals) that regulates pH to normal?

a buffer

something that speeds up a reaction?


a protein that is a catalyst in human reaction?


energy is being released? (type of reaction)


energy is being absorbed? (type of reaction)


energy needed to start a reaction?

activation energy

two atoms share electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in its outer shell. what is this?

covalent bond

type of covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally?

polar covalent bond

type of covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally?

nonpolar covalent bond

the smallest unit of matter?


union of 2 or more atoms of the same element?


substances that can't be broken down into substances with different properties?


substances having 2 or more different elements united chemically?


small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer?


macromolecule made of covalently bonded monomers?


a chemical process that combines severed monomers to for a polymer/polymeric compound?


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