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56 terms

Ms. William's Biology #2

Flashcards for the first review packet that we did in class.
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same number of ..... but different number of ...
protons; neutrons
number of neutrons and number of electrons
atomic number
1st degree structure of proteins
primary
2nd degree structure of proteins
secondary
3rd degree structure of proteins
tertiary
4th degree structure of proteins
quaternary
monomer of carbohydrates
monosaccharide
polymer of carbohydrates
polysaccharide
functions of carbohydrates
energy, structure
examples of carbohydrates
starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin, peptidogylcan
elements carbohydrates are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
monomer of proteins
amino acids
polymer of proteins
polypeptide
functions of proteins
transports, supports, metabolizes, defense, motion, regulation
examples of proteins
kerotine, actin, colegin, myocine
elements proteins are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
monomer of lipids
fatty acid and gylcerol
polymer of lipids
triglyceride, phospholipids, fats, oils, waxes
functions of lipids
stabilization, structure of membrane
examples of lipids
fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids
elements lipids are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
monomer of nucleic acids
nucleotides
polymer of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
functions of nucleic acids
ATP, bases of DNA
examples of nucleic acids
guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
elements nucleic acids are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphate
what are nucleotides composed of?
phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogen base
what is the universal solvent?
pure water
examples of acids
stomach acid, black coffee, tomatoes, lemons
examples of bases
sodium hydroxide, household ammonia
hydrogen ions are what type of solution? (acidic or basic)
acidic
hydroxide ions are what type of solution? (acidic or basic)
basic
ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding. what is this?
cohesion
water molecules cling to other polar surfaces. what is this?
adhesion
water has this:
a high heat capacity
when H2O freezes, its volume increases. what is this called?
expansion
bonds within a water molecule
polar covalent
bonds between water molecules
hydrogen bonds
what is the pH of blood?
7.4
chemical reaction in blood:
H4 + HCO3
what is a chemical (or a combination of chemicals) that regulates pH to normal?
a buffer
something that speeds up a reaction?
catalyst
a protein that is a catalyst in human reaction?
enzyme
energy is being released? (type of reaction)
exergonic
energy is being absorbed? (type of reaction)
endergonic
energy needed to start a reaction?
activation energy
two atoms share electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in its outer shell. what is this?
covalent bond
type of covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally?
polar covalent bond
type of covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally?
nonpolar covalent bond
the smallest unit of matter?
atoms
union of 2 or more atoms of the same element?
molecules
substances that can't be broken down into substances with different properties?
elements
substances having 2 or more different elements united chemically?
compounds
small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer?
monomer
macromolecule made of covalently bonded monomers?
polymer
a chemical process that combines severed monomers to for a polymer/polymeric compound?
polymerization