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Steps of the Scientific Method

State the research question; choose the design and methods; test the hypothesis; interpret the data; disseminate the findings.


A prediction, based on observation, previous research, and theory.

Experimental Research

Manipulates a cause to determine its effect.


Refers to producing consistent results from one time to another.

Test-Retest Reliability

Reliability that measures whether the same score is achieved on multiple attempts.

Alternate Forms Reliability

Reliability referring to whether the same results are found on different versions of the test.

Internal Consistency Reliability

Reliability of whether questions within the test correlate.


Refers to a test actually measuring the construct it is intended to measure especially upon replication.

Content Validity

Validity based in individual test items that measure what they are supposed to.

Construct Validity

Validity based in individual test items appropriately grouped into underlying categories (such as traits).

Predictive Validity

Validity based in results that are related to responses on another measurement.

External Validity

Validity of results from random sampling for broad generalization.

Measurement Techniques

Direct self-report; indirect questions/projective tests; Behavioral Measures; Physiological Methods (EKG, etc.)

Correlational Research

Examines relationships among two or more variables; no manipulation of the variables, but just recording and statistical manipulation of data.

Correlation Coefficient

Adds strength and direction to statements about relationships; ranges from -1 to 1.

No Relationship

+/- .0 to .29

Moderate Relationship

+/- .3 to .69

Strong Relationship

+/- .70+

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