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Grimm's Fairy Tales
Smith East Carolina University (ECU)
Terms in this set (175)
Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns
Debate between authors who wanted to model French literature on works and traditions from antiquity and authors who wanted to create French literature more reflective of their own time. These "Moderns" were supportive of fairy tales.
"The Quarrel of the ancients and moderns" is important for understanding...
-the climate in which Perrault (a modern) published some of his most important fairy tales
-the climate in which fairy tale supporters had to work-- the King was an "ancient"
-the perceived importance of literary endeavors for the creation and maintenance of national literature and identity
True or false: 17th c. France had a king, a central court, and a standard language.
Bettleheim says that meaning...
-helps us live not just from minute to minute
-comes from experience
-helps us achieve satisfaction in our lives
Why is Perrault's Cinderella so noteworthy?
-glass slipper featured prominently for the first time
-Cinderella forgives her stepsisters and finds them apartments and husbands
-asks if quality is based on societal rank, appearance, or character
Cinderella's behavior at the end of the Perrault version...
-is Christlike because she forgives without expecting anything in return
-invites readers to emulate her behavior
-is supportive of the society in which she lives because she helps her stepsisters find lodging and husbands
Grimms' Cinderella is...
merely a transcribed oral tale
How does the Grimms' version of Cinderella begin?
With the passing of Cinderella's mother and her admonition that Cinderella should be "pious" and the "Lord" will look after her
What does Cinderella ask of her father in the Grimms' version?
The first twig that brushes against his hat
The twig that the father brings home in Grimms' Cinderella represents...
The dove that inhabits the tree at the grave of Cinderella's mother can be seen to...
-symbolize the Holy Spirit
-illustrate the unique connection between Cinderella and nature
-be spatially significant of Cindy on the earthly plane and her mother in heaven
How does Grimms' Cinderella end?
Pigeons' pecking the stepsisters' eyes out
The ending of Grimms' Cinderella signals the existence of...
Both versions of Cinderella aim to...
-stressing the importance of good parenting
-commentary on sibling rivalry
-teaching ourselves that we all need help of others-- but have to be proactive to help ourselves as well
Repetition and grouping of items in a series gives a printed tale the feeling of an...
True or false: "Rook di goo, rook di goo! There's blood in the shoe!" is repeated in the Grimms' Cinderella
Freudian term that refers to our most basic drives and urges as animals (ie. hunger, sleep, libido)
the organized, realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego
plays the critical and moralizing role
The color white in Snow White symbolizes...
innocence and sexual purity
What does the red blood on the snow symbolize in Snow White?
the Queen's menstrual cycle (and thus her ability to have a baby)
What could the color black symbolize in Snow White?
-fortitude, stability, and resilience
-fertility (like black soil)
What are the seven deadly sins?
pride, envy, gluttony, lust, anger, greed and sloth
Give an example of vanity in Snow White.
the wicked queen's obsession with being the fairest in the land
Vanitas became a popular trope in 17th century _____ in the _____.
Artworks depicting a skull with objects like books, flowers, an hourglass, etc. are meant to convey...
the fleetingness or impermanence of the human body and human pursuits
The wicked queen in Snow White tries to ignore the fact that our lives and appearance are characterized by our bodies'...
The apple that the old woman offers Snow White symbolizes...
True or false: in the first edition (1812) of the Grimms' Snow White, the mother is the evil one instead of a stepmother.
In Latin, "malum" can mean apple or...
an evil or misfortune
What lessons do we learn from Snow White?
-choosing the right spouse is very important for both you and your children
-making the wrong choices and suffering the consequences is part of the maturation process
-life is characterized by change
-appearance does not always reflect being
Bettleheim argues that the 7 dwarfs represent _____ and that Snow White's trying each of the beds indicates her ______.
phalluses/ growing sexual experience and maturation
When Snow White is unconsious, the dwarfs...
comb her hair and put her in a glass coffin
The dwarfs' treatment of Snow White cab be interpreted as...
the objectification of woman by and for male voyeurs
Snow White's unconscious state represents...
the time of development between childhood and adulthood (ie she goes to sleep and awakes a woman capable of marrying a prince)
What happens to the evil queen in Snow White?
She is made to go to the wedding and dance in hot iron shoes until she dies
Who is Anne Sexton?
A 20th century American poet who published adaptations of select fairy tales in her book "Transformations."
Sexton's poem "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" focuses on...
society's objectification of virginity and of women
At the end of Sexton's Snow White, one has the sense that Snow White...
is vane and superficial like her stepmother
What does the manner in which Snow White is awakened symbolize?
She is jostled awake when someone carrying her coffin trips, symbolizing the unpredictability of puberty ending.
Where is the famous Little Mermaid statue?
In what time period did Hans Christian Anderson live?
April 1805-1875 (19th century)
What two towns influenced Hans Christian Anderson the most?
Odense and Copenhagen (he also spent time in Germany)
Hans Christian Anderson was emblematic of...
social mobility (rose from poverty to a life of culture and art in the bourgeois)
What is Hans Christian Anderson's outlook on Christianity?
religious belief/conviction informs much of his work, but it's not a dogmatic Christian belief
In Rapunzel, what does the small window overlooking the garden represent?
temptation (such as the Garden of Eden)
What could the oral craving of rapunzel lettuce be attributed to?
-missing folic acid
What are the actions of Rapunzel's father regarding the sorceress similar to?
"In his fear, the man agreed to everything."
Pact with the devil, much like Goethe's Faust I.
When does the sorceress lock Rapunzel in the tower?
when she turns 12 (coincides with puberty)
What two hallmarks of growing up are contrasted in Rapunzel?
Ingenuity vs Immaturity
Rapunzel comes up with a plan to use silk to get down to her prince but divulges the plan to her stepmother
When the prince finds Rapunzel after wandering for years, who is with her?
Twins! A boy and a girl!
What does the frog (that tells the Queen she's going to have a baby) in Grimms' Brier Rose symbolize?
-transformation (tadpole to frog, amphibious ability to move from water to land = Queen as wife and soon to be mother)
-sexual maturation (frog can expand itself like a penis/ feels tacky and clammy like genitals)
-sexual experience (frog isn't scary, but can be disgusting for someone not expecting it or not mature enough to handle it)
What numerical symbolism can be found in Grimms' Brier Rose?
-only 12 plates for 12 wise women (12 apostles, 12 tribes of Israel, Norse god Odin had 12 sons)
-13th woman is unlucky
-girl set to prick her finger when she turns 15-- she's becoming a woman
What are examples of parental failure in Grimms' Brier Rose?
-King forsakes his duty as king/host/dad by not inviting all wise women
-King and Queen aren't home on the day daughter turns 15, weirdly
What can Brier Rose's ascent into the tower and subsquent finger pricking symbolize?
-girl taking charge and acting independently (maturation)
-girl unfamiliar with spinning and pricks her finger (menstruation)
-sheltered life (spinning was a standard skill for women)
In the Grimms' Brier Rose, what gets the Prince to the castle?
The timing was right (nothing super extraordinary about him)
What two elements does Perrault combine in Sleeping Beauty?
Christian and magical (ie "All the fairies that could be found" invited to the christening, were asked to be "godmothers.")
What does the inability to find all the fairies in the kingdom signify in Perrault's Sleeping Beauty?
limitations of one's knowledge
What numerical symbolism can be found in Perrault's Sleeping Beauty?
-7 gold cases made for 7 fairies (7 days in the week, 7 days of Creation-- signifies completion, perfection)
-8th fairy points to imperfection, incompleteness of human affairs and human knowledge
What gifts do the fairies in Perrault's Sleeping Beauty bestow?
Something a cultured lady would be expected to master: beauty, angelic temperament, grace, dance, sing, play instrument.
Old fairy said she'd pierce finger on spindle and die, young fairy says she'll sleep for 100 years
What does the king's edict against spindles symbolize? (Perrault Sleeping Beauty)
-shows limits of human power/control
-impotence of the king's decree points to one's inability to avoid physical maturation
-parents inability to control everything their kids do
Who is Fortuna and what does she mean?
-Roman goddess personifying luck and fortune
-one minute you have everything, next minute you may have lost it all through no actions of your own
-associated with the wheel of fortune
What does Sleeping Beauty do when her parents go out of town?
explores her boundaries (goes from one chamber to another in the castle)
What brings the prince to the castle in Perrault's Sleeping Beauty?
he is especially courageous
"The less there is of ____ the more there is of ____." (Perrault Sleeping Beauty)
What weird twist does the Perrault Sleeping Beauty take?
The prince keeps his marriage and subsequent children secret from his mother, carries on a double life
What is strange about the Prince's mom in Perrault's Sleeping Beauty?
-she's from a race of ogres
-Prince leaves mom in charge when he goes off to fight and she wants to eat children
-family spared by steward sent to kill them
-mom gets angry at being duped and throws herself into a vat
What is the moral of Perrault's Sleeping Beauty?
Marriage deferred brings joy unheard
What are two Romantic notions in Grimms' The Robber Bridegroom?
-girl is subjected to an arranged marriage that goes wrong
-when girl goes into the woods to see him, she can't explain why she feels anxious-- importance of intuition
What does "unheimlich" mean?
-means strange, mysterious but implies that it is somehow familiar
-used to describe robber's house in Grimms' The Robber Bridegroom
What purpose do the birds in a cage serve in Grimms' The Robber Bridegroom?
-birds are harbingers, warn us
-birds have bird's eye perspective, which is to say they see things we can't
-birds in a cage give us pause-- nature constrained unnaturally
What does the "bobbing" of the old woman signify? (Robber Bridegroom)
When the bride tells the wedding party what she saw, how do they respond? (Grimm Robber Bridegroom)
They interrupt 3 times with "My dear, it was only a dream." But a dream is never just a dream!
How does Grimms' Robber Bridegroom end?
Girl produces finger of dead lady, robber tries to run but is caught, magistrate executes him
What was the bride's father's profession in Grimms' The Robber Bridegroom?
he's a Miller
What does the blue beard in Perrault's Bluebeard signify?
he is different, perhaps from a different culture
How did Bluebeard convince the youngest daughter to marry him?
Took everyone (no father figure, so just mom, daughters, and their friends) to his country estate where they partied excessively (7 deadly sins)
What is the significance of Bluebeard's wife's promise to follow his orders while he was away?
-importance of an oral contract
-temptation (eating the apple brought knowledge of good and evil; temptation to open door springs from not knowing)
-loss of innocence with new knowledge
-marriage and importance of knowing who you marry over loving their material goods
What does Bluebeard's wife's promise breaking symbolize?
-goes down back staircase to give impression of secret/hidden behavior
-guilt (blood on key)
-(female) curiosity (like Pandora)
What does Bluebeard likely do for a living?
Probably a pirate or member of the navy, as he wishes to kill wife with a cutlass
What is the moral of Bluebeard?
"No longer are husbands terrible to see, no longer to the demand the untarnished key." aka increasing acceptance of female sexuality in promiscuous French court culture
When did the Grimm brothers live and work?
b. 1780's - d. 1850's/1860's
Where did the Grimms live and work during their career? (three primary towns/cities)
Born in Hanau, worked in Gottegen, later in life in Berlin.
How was the area of central Europe where the Grimms' spend their lives characterized politically?
Over 300 principalities.
What foreign force occupied the Grimms' homeland in 1806?
The French army (that of Napoleon)
What happened to this foreign force in 1813? How do you think the lack of German unity and the occupation of Napoleonic forces during the early 1800s might have influenced the Grimms' work or worldview?
Fond of shared cultural traditions despite the lack of political unification (happened in 1871 under Bismark). Interested in folk tradition—wanted to collect this as a way to unify German's culturally
What were the Göttingen Seven and how does the Grimms' participation in their actions show that the brothers were politically minded and engaged?
Seven professors in Gottingen who were fired from their jobs because they wrote a letter to the king of Hanover protesting his vacating of the Constitution of 1833, which provided liberal democratic freedoms. Grimm brothers were against this as it restricted their speech.
What is folk poetry?
Folk = Volk... means people
poetry of the people
Johann Gottfried Herder
a philosopher and big proponent of folk poetry, a contemporary of the Grimms (slightly older), who influenced them
The Grimms are perhaps best known for their work with fairy tales, but they are influential scholars in other respects-- like what?
-Deutsches Woterbuch (like German Oxford Dictionary)
-Deutsche Mythologie (Germanic myths)
-Deutsche Sagen (German legends)
-also well known linguists
About how old were the brothers when they began working with fairy tales?
What was the Romantic Movement?
-Championed, folk poetry, song and fairy tales-- things to do with the people.
-Was largely a reaction to the Enlightenment era in which people emphasized reason
-Romantics thought enlightenment thinkers downplayed emotion and the role feelings play in being human
When did the Romantic movement take place?
Late 18th century-1850. German romanticism started around 1774 thanks to Goethe, and continued until about 1830.
What, according to Jacob Grimm, helped lift his spirits amid the French occupation?
Their work with Germanic tales and cultural traditions.
Grimms had "Cinderella" material from four different dialects, what happens when the Grimms standardize the version for print?
Dialect leveling—editors must make choices among which dialects to take things from. New version created as many versions become one.
And how might a print version of the tale differ from an oral version?
Tales often shortened/made more spicy due to economic considerations.
What considerations must one keep in mind when preparing a story for publication?
Erasure of notations and markings.
Why is the second volume of the Grimms' collection, published 1815, seen as more "aesthetically pleasing" than the first? What did the Grimms do to improve upon the first volume?
Got better storytellers as sources, worked to make it better written.
With which volume did the Grimms begin to achieve "popular success"? Why?
1825 edition (included illustrations, targeted kids!)
Neumann provides lines from "The Frog King", from three different editions of the Grimms' collection. How do these opening lines change?
Became much more detailed.
How did the Grimms regard their revision and expansion of the fairy tale material?
They viewed it as a natural part of the tradition—the core was still there, and the different take was part of the natural evolution of fairy tales.
The Grimms weren't the first to collect and disseminate fairy tales. Why is their collection so highly regarded when compared to those that came before them?
The breadth and the depth of the tales. Really diverse representation of Germanic culture and the cultures that influenced it (ie Slavic).
Should Grimms' fairy tales be seen as representative of German society only? Why (not)?
No, because many of the motifs and themes are borrowed from earlier in history, stretching as far back as Antiquity, and we can't trace every thread back to it's origin.
True or false: According to Zipes, fairy tales can often be seen as commenting on the production and exercise of power in societies.
Why is it hard to clearly separate oral folktales from literary fairy tales?
We don't really have oral folk tales, we only have what's been passed down to us.
When did scholars begin to focus on fairy tales and folktales in earnest, and why?
Fairy tales started up in the 1500s, scholars jumped in advocating the genre in late 17th c France. Grimm bros helped organize them in 1800s.
How old are many "folktale or fairy tale motifs" that we know?
Quite old! They extend back to Antiquity in both Greek and Roman cultures as well as Asia. (India)
When did the literary fairy tale tradition begin to take hold in Europe? And why would the ruling classes not be particularly fond of oral wonder tales and the fairy tales that grew out of them?
Vladmir Propp, a famous Russian formalist, identified __ functions often found in folktales. Why?
31; to allow for the categorization and comparison of tales.
When did tales of wonder begin to be viewed as heretical, dangerous, or sacrilegious?
Rise and solidification of Christian church in Western Europe.
According to Zipes, why were tales feminized? Why, in other words, did it become popular to associate tales of wonder and folktales with female storytellers?
Because they detracted from their authenticity and question their worth.
Why is the "literary tradition of the fairy tale" often associated with men?
Because men where the ones who were trained to read and write. (And even later it was more acceptable for men to be published)
Who coined the term conte de fée, from which we get the English term "fairy tale"? She published stories in __________ France.
Madame D'Aulnoy; 17th century
Mme Leprince de Beaumont published her version of "Beauty and the Beast" in 1757. What was a goal?
To educate young girls on how they should act in society
Ludwig Tieck, ETA Hoffmann, and Clemens Brentano were all German Romantic writers whose works influenced the ____________________.
What's the connection between the Grimms' fairy tale project and their idea of German democratic nationalism?
Germany was unified/became a political state in 1871. Before this (Grimm era) was an amalgamation of towns, municipalities, provinces with local governments and currencies. German speakers were trying to figure out how to give fellow German speakers a sense of community—Grimm's viewed the fairy tale project as a way to do that by giving them a common cultural body of work.
What kind of analogy does Zipes use to describe the fairy tale genre?
Biological (species) analogy—encourages us to view fairy tales as a living organism that changes an adapts through time and cultures.
What is the relationship between the oral tradition (of fairy tales) and the literary fairy tale?
Oral influences the literary in many ways, it's hard to know when or where because we have the tales that were written down but no recordings of the tales as they were told through time
When did the literary fairy tale genre come into being in western Europe and what country is especially known for its development in the 17th century?
In the 1500's in Europe (Italy)was the very very beginnings, but late 17th century France was more popular
What two French writers had their collections of fairy tales published in 1697?
Marie Catherine D'Aulnoy (coined term fairy tale) and Charles Perrault (Disney relied on him)
From whom did "early writers of fairy tales" borrow material that they then adapted for their own audiences and time periods?
Just about everybody from every time period—German scholars knew latin and borrowed from Antiquity
Whose work does Zipes consider the first "major equilibrium of the literary genre"? What might he mean by this designation?
Grimm bros because they took so many tales and put them in a collection—1812-1815 point in time when we can look back into time and forward
Did the Grimms just make up their stories or were their stories based on other traditions and stories? If so, whose?
No. They tweaked various versions of older stories from here there and everywhere
When were the first volumes of Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen published?
Why did Zipes feel the need to collect and publish tales from roughly 1500-1815?
Fairy tales came into being early and continued into the Grimm era
How did Zipes arrange the collection of tales? Why didn't he just arrange them according to the Aarne-Thompson classification system?
According to theme. He felt AT was more geared towards orally told stories.
What do fairy tales provide that dreams don't?
In dreams we're presented with wishes/pressures that don't get resolved within the dreams themselves. Fairy tales help ordinary people (children) see that problems are ordinary and (generally)can be happily resolved.
Why are fairy tales so popular in Bettelheim's opinion?
For this very reason! Give children strength and confidence to face problems in their own lives.
What does Bettleheim mean when he says that myth is pessimistic and a fairy tale optimistic?
Myths = generally about extraordinary people facing insurmountable odds, often end badly; about forces larger than people (gods), show us we're just human and we're going to die a human death; Fairy Tales = more about ordinary people overcoming problems with happy endings
What is the purpose of a fable according to Bettleheim?
Fable is didactic- teaches us how to act/ what NOT to do.
How does Bettelheim describe the problems outlined in fairy tales (in contrast to the problems one encounters in myths)?
Problems ordinary (sibling rivalry, maturation/puberty, sexual desire, place in society/status) and relatable
What does Bettleheim say myths give us as opposed to fairy tales?
Myths give us an ideal, extraordinary personality who is trying to act in accordance to what gods/nature wills—unattainable; Fairy tales depict ego, the person and how they try to come to grips with his/her animalistic drives and desires
What is the source of Perrault's Little Red Riding Hood?
Never sufficiently identified, came from a cycle of tales that existed
What is the "real" title of Little Red Riding Hood?
The title in French actually means little red cap, an article of clothing worn by the French bourgeois at the time, indicating the desire of the girl to be part of that class.
The wolf in Perrault's LRR was described as being her ____.
Little Red taking time to gather nuts and flowers illustrates Freud's...
What is the moral of Perrault's LRR?
Warning about men as predators
"Sweetest tongue has the sharpest tooth"
How does Perrault's version of LRR end?
She is gobbled up by the wolf.
What is an example of verbal contract in Grimm's Little Red Cap?
The mother gives explicit instructions to Little Red about delivering goods, Little Red promises to do as she says
How does the Grimm version of Little Red Cap end?
a hunter finds the wolf and cuts women out of it's belly, then they put rocks in his stomach and he dies trying to run away
What is the alternate ending of the Grimm Little Red Cap?
Little Red comes back later and encounters another wolf, but having learned her lesson conspires with her Grandmother to drown him in a trough.
What does "homo lupus est" mean?
man is a wolf to man (Platus)
How does Angela Carter's "Company of Wolves" begin?
With a description of werewolves using anecdotes such as a woman being bitten in her kitchen, a hunter who killed a wolf that turned into a man, and a woman who lost her husband, remarried, and was attacked by wolf-hubby #1
What does the second part of Angela Carter's "Company of Wolves" entail?
An adaptation of the story of Little Red Riding Hood
How does Angela Carter's "Company of Wolves" conclude?
the girl laughs at the wolf, throws her clothes in the fire, and sleeps with him (to what degree are we all wolves?)
How does Angela Carter address readers in "Company of Wolves?"
consummation of love in death or after death
last aria of Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde"
Giovan Francesco Straparola
(c. 1480-1558) the father of the literary fairy tale in Europe
-Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis.
-developed the concepts of the extroverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, collective unconscious
"the eternal image of the woman" that a man unconsciously carries with him
the memories, concepts, and impulses that we as humans all share unconsciously, regardless of our own personal identity (Jung)
a primordial, universal image or idea that inhabits the collective unconscious (Jung)
"the eternal image of the man" that a woman unconsciously carries with her
Constanza/Constanzo stresses that a person...
-should know him/her self and be prepared to self advocate
-should question gender roles
-even the downtrodden can improve their lot through education, ingenuity, and self-asstertedness
How do we know Rumpelstiltskin is a devil figure?
-etymology of the German verb "rumpeln"
-exhortation "The devil told you!"
Rumpelstiltskin can be read as...
-societal criticism over girl being taken advantage of by dad and the king
-economic commentary about the exploitation of workers
-warning against pride and greed
Approximately a half a century before Freud was born, Tieck's "The Fair Haired Eckbert" highlighted activities of the psyche with which the good Austrian doctor would become fascinated, such as Doppelgänger, the uncanny, and the unconscious itself.
At the end of the story, Eckbert questions
why he seemed to sense that Bertha was related to him, even if he didn't consciously know it.
Troubled by his wife's story and the fact that Walter knew the dog's name, Eckbert
shoots Walther with an arrow
At the end of the story, the old woman wonders why Bertha
why she left her (the old woman).
At the end of the story, the old woman reveals that she was
Phillip Walther and Hugo von Wolfsberg
Eckbert is about 40 years of age, Bertha starts telling the story of her youth at midnight, Bertha decides to leave the hospitality of the old woman at the age of 14-- these time indicators could be seen as liminal moments: Eckbert is middle aged and beginning perhaps the second half of his life, or at least a new chapter; Bertha's life as she knows it (or doesn't know it!) is about to undergo significant chance when she tells the story; her deciding to leave the safety of the old woman's home for the unknown outside world at the age of 14 reminds us of the impetuousness of adolescence and the maturity which develops from such decisions -- a personal growth we have seen in other fairy tales.
Eckbert and Bertha live in the Hartz (Harz in German), a mountain range in central northern Germany. We've learned about it before in lectures. It's highest point, the Brocken, is often features in literature as a meeting place of demonic figures. This setting gives Tieck's take an especially unsettling feel.
We know something is amiss with Eckbert already in the first two paragraphs because
-he is described as a "knight", a position that carries with it social responsibility, yet Eckbert hardly ever has anything to do with people on the area. He lives the life of a hermit.
-his appearance seems unhealthy, perhaps even deathlike in that he has a pale, sunken face.
-heaven seemed unwilling to bless their marriage with children
-he doesn't amend his routine at all when he has guests. That doesn't seem hospitable or even "knight" like.
"The Fair-Haired Eckbert" can be read as
The dog's name becomes important because
-Philip Walther knew it.
-it precipitates Bertha's illness.
Bertha leaves the old woman's hut, forsaking the lady and her dog. The dog's name turns out to be
Hinted at already by the fact that their names share the letters "BERT" (Eckbert/Bertha),the revelation of a blood relationship between Bertha and Eckbert emphasizes
the subtle yet inescapable and important role of the unconsious
In "The Fair-Haired Eckbert," the eponymous protagonist discovers that his wife is actually
As Freud notes, the meaning of a Doppelgänger has shifted over time, but, in literature, a Doppelgänger is usually a harbinger of bad luck or even death.
A Doppelganger is a literary figure or device that often makes a character
consider aspects of his/her identity ignored or repressed
"The Uncanny" ("Das Unheimliche") describes the feeling one has when
events, people, surroundings seem inexplicably strange, yet familiar
According to Freud, the uncanny leads to
a feeling of dread and horror
According to Freud, who cites the work of Jentsch, the uncanny is sometimes awakened in literature through the depiction of a being, and one cannot quite tell if that being is
an automaton or a human
Freud cites the famous work by ETA Hoffmann, one that we all should have read at some point and which features characters by the name of Nathaniel, Clara, Olympia, and Coppelius
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