Terms in this set (50)
What happened to the Spanish colonial outposts in New Mexico and Florida?
They stagnated and primarily attracted religious missionaries.
Bacon's Rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over Indian policy and ended as a conflict between
the planter elite and small farmers.
How did the Indian leader Popé respond to Spanish exploitation and the work of Spanish missionaries in New Mexico in 1680?
Popé organized a violent revolt against the Spanish.
Why did Nathaniel Bacon's demands distress the royal government and the elite planters of Virginia?
His plan transferred power to newcomers and small farmers.
How did the English of the Virginia Company differ from the Spanish colonists in the New World?
The English cared less about converting Indians to Christianity.
By the 1670s, the Chesapeake social structure was polarized along what lines?
Most indentured came from which class?
Poor men from England
Which profitable export crop depended on the expertise of slaves brought from West Africa to Carolina?
Why did the colonies shift from an indentured servant labor force to a slave labor force?
Slavery provided a perpetual labor force.
The majority of the original settlers who came to Jamestown and the Virginia colony were
gentlemen and their servants.
Seventeenth-century Chesapeake society was essentially a society of
servants and free workers.
Virginia tobacco farmers confronted what major obstacle in the 1600s?
Too few workers
What happened in Maryland, Lord Baltimore's planned refuge for Catholics?
Catholics feuded with the Protestant majority.
How had political equality in Virginia actually decreased by 1670?
Only male landowners and heads of households could vote.
How did indentured servitude differ between women and men?
Women servants could not marry.
Which factor contributed to the high mortality rate of the Englishmen who made the first voyage to what would become Jamestown, Virginia?
What was the only seventeenth-century English colony to be settled principally by colonists from other colonies rather than from England?
A servant labor system in the British colonies was made possible by the New World's labor shortage and
the decrease in job opportunities in England.
Planters preferred a slave labor system over a servant labor system because slaves
could be controlled politically.
Until the 1670s, almost all Chesapeake colonists were English; by 1700, how many were African?
one in eight
Which crop turned Virginia into a stable colony?
What did Opecancanough do only four years after the death of his brother Powhatan?
Wage an attack on the English
How did headrights encourage settlement in the Virginia colony?
They provided fifty acres of land to every settler who paid his own way.
The availability of land during the first half of the seventeenth century shaped what kind of society in the Chesapeake?
A society with a degree of frontier equality
Why did Richard Hakluyt support English colonization?
Colonies would provide a place for the unemployed to work.
What could the Virginia colonists have done to improve their prospects in 1607?
Learned how to farm
How did Powhatan help the English stave off starvation?
He brought corn to the colony for barter.
King James's land grant to the Virginia Company of over 6 million acres allowed English settlers to
poach on Spanish claims and on Indian lands.
What did the concept of mercantilism dictate about the colonial economy?
What was good for England should become colonial policy.
What happened in Virginia after Bacon's death?
Royal officials nullified Bacon's Laws.
Spanish missionaries considered European ideas about civilization to be
necessary for the full conversion of Indians to Christianity.
Which statement characterizes most hired workers in Virginia?
Workers earned two to three times more in the Chesapeake than in England.
By 1700, the British Caribbean annually exported nearly 50 million pounds of which product?
What explains the dispersion of settlements in the Chesapeake?
Tobacco farms required large amounts of land.
Indentured servants viewed themselves as
free people who were servants only temporarily.
Indentured servants could have their servitude extended by years if they
committed a crime.
What was an employer required to give a servant after she or he completed an indenture?
Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for
Which factor, along with Opecancanough's uprising, led King James to revoke the Virginia Company charter and make Virginia a royal colony in 1624?
A report highlighting the mismanagement of the Virginia Company
When Pocahontas intervened to save John Smith, she may have been participating in an Algonquian ceremony that
expressed Powhatan's supremacy.
What is a yeoman farmer?
One whose small plot of land is worked by himself and his family
Why were Powhatan and his people suspicious of English intentions?
Colonists often resorted to violence toward the Indians.
The slave population grew in Barbados because
planters imported more slaves from Africa.
Compared to slavery in Barbados, slaves in the Chesapeake
were subjected to more constant surveillance by whites.
The slave labor system that was introduced to the Chesapeake was "exported" from
Why did the social and political distance between planters and small farmers decrease between 1660 and 1700?
The colony increased its dependence on slave labor.
Why did planters maintain the servant system through the 1680s?
Free people preferred to work for themselves.
How did the decline in the price of tobacco in the third quarter of the seventeenth century change the Chesapeake?
Social divisions emerged.
Which of the following British colonies brought in the greatest profit in 1700?
Unlike servants in England, Chesapeake servants
had no control over who purchased their labor.