All questions from the chapter 7 test over cognition from AP psychology, vocab included.
Pearson - Psychology AP* Edition
E) cognitive map
A(n) ______ is a cognitive representation of a physical space. A) spatial heuristic B) confirmation bias C) chunk D) algorithm E) cognitive map
A) a natural language mediator.
To remember the five Great Lakes, you might remember the word HOMES, because each of the five letters in HOMES is the first letter of one of the Great Lakes. This strategy is known as A) a natural language mediator. B) maintenance rehearsal. C) the method of loci. D) a recognition task. E) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
D) fraction of a second
How long does sensory memory generally last? A) 1 minute B) no limit to how long sensory memory will last C) 1 second D) fraction of a second E) 10 seconds
B) seven; Miller.
The capacity of working memory is about ______ items and this theory was developed by A) thirty; Craik. B) seven; Miller. C) eleven; Miller. D) three; Schacter. E) twenty; Aronson.
C) the fact that we pay little attention to such details.
The reason it may be difficult to remember how many rows of stars appear on the United States flag is most likely due to A) sensory interference. B) the limits of our visual system. C) the fact that we pay little attention to such details. D) sensory adaptation. E) habituation.
C) hindsight bias.
After the outcome is known, people often have distorted thinking about their original expectations due to A) confirmation bias. B) their prototypes. C) hindsight bias. D) availability heuristic. E) representativeness heuristic.
If you are unable to remember the name of your second grade teacher because you haven't thought of her in a while, you are demostrating A) transcience. B) encoding specificty. C) absent-mindedness. D) the serial position effect. E) misattribution.
Getting information out of memory is known as A) retrieval. B) encoding. C) storage. D) elaboration. E) chunking.
The physical changes that are associated with memory are known as a(n) A) schema. B) long-term potentiation. C) phoneme. D) engram. E) phosgene.
B) photographic memory.
Another term for eidetic imagery is A) engram. B) photographic memory. C) recognition. D) episodic memory. E) implicit memory.
Blocking refers to the situation in which competing memories produce ______ leading to forgetting. A) misattribution B) transference C) an engram D) interference E) transduction
A) the majority of students held placed Europe at the center of the world.
In studies that were completed regarding students' cognitive maps of the world, researchers found that A) the majority of students held placed Europe at the center of the world. B) there were no conclusive findings from the study. C) most students placed the United States at the center of the world. D) all students regardless of where they lived shared a cognitive map that was very similar. E) most students made Australia much smaller than it actually is.
E) functional fixedness.
A person who uses a drop of super glue to seal a paper cut on their finger has overcome the obstacle to effective problem solving related to A) the anchoring bias. B) the representativeness heuristic. C) working backward. D) regression to the average. E) functional fixedness.
A) the anchoring bias.
Usually about 500 people attend the annual exquisite Irish food festival. This year however, about 5000 people have attended because the word has spread that the boiled cabbage last year was "out of this world". Kelly, who is organizing the event, knows that there is usually 500 people there, while she knows more people in attendance she estimates the crowd to be about 1000 people. She is probably underestimating the crowd due to A) the anchoring bias. B) self-imposed limitations. C) mental set. D) the representativeness heuristic. E) cognitive maps.
A) choose whether you would like to have roses or lilacs in your garden.
An algorithm would not be the best strategy when trying to A) choose whether you would like to have roses or lilacs in your garden. B) use a mathematical formula to figure out the answer. C) follow the directions on a box of legos in order to build the fort pictured on the cover. D) follow a specific procedure during a science lab. E) calculate your grade point average.
A) procedural memory
A guitarist uses ______ to recall how to play the notes of a specific song. A) procedural memory B) mnemonics C) a flashbulb memory D) semantic memory E) episodic memory
______ are clusters of knowledge that provide general conceptual frameworks regarding certain topics, events, and situations. A) Algorithms B) Prototypes C) Cognitive maps D) Schemas E) Hierarchies
E) cannot be directly observed by researchers.
Concepts A) can represent objects but not activities. B) come in exactly two types, visual and auditory. C) are basically the same from one person to the next. D) interfere with our ability to organize new information. E) cannot be directly observed by researchers.
A) iconic; echoic
The sensory register for vision is called ______ memory, whereas the sensory register for hearing is called ______ memory. A) iconic; echoic B) implicit; explicit C) olfactory; auditory D) explicit; implicit E) declarative; procedural
C) your mental image of the statue of Liberty
Which one of the following is Not an artificial concept? A) Einstein's theory of relativity B) the dictionary definition of the word 'truth' C) your mental image of the statue of Liberty D) how to determine the radius of a circle E) the lyrics to "New York, New York"
B) encoding, storage, and retrieval
Which of the following are the three essential tasks of memory? A) eidetic imagery, short-term memory, and recall B) encoding, storage, and retrieval C) recall, recognition, and relearning D) sensory, working, and long-term memory
A) working memory.
In order to get material into permanent storage, it must be made meaningful while it is in A) working memory. B) sensory memory. C) long-term memory. D) immediate memory.
A person experience the TOT phenomenon is unable to ______ a specific word. A) store B) encode C) recall D) recognize
C) We forget rapidly at first and then more slowly.
Which one of the following statements best describes forgetting, as characterized by Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve? A) We forget at a constant rate. B) We forget slowly at first and then more rapidly. C) We forget rapidly at first and then more slowly. D) We never forget.
Which one of the seven "sins" of memory is disputed by those who believe that memories of childhood abuse can, in many cases, be recovered during adulthood? A) suggestibility B) transience C) persistence D) absent-mindedness
B) children are born with some rules of grammar programmed into their brains.
Noam Chomsky has presented evidence supporting his theory that A) children learn language by imitating their parents. B) children are born with some rules of grammar programmed into their brains. C) different languages may have entirely different rules of grammar. D) vocabulary is innate, but grammar is learned.
B) extremely high intelligence
Which of the following is not a characteristic that is consistently found among highly creative people? A) open-mindedness B) extremely high intelligence C) willingness to restructure the problem D) a high level of motivation E) independence
D) availability bias.
Because you watch a lot of violent videos, you think your chances of being mugged are quite high. Your judgement is flawed by A) anchoring bias. B) functional fixedness. C) hindsight bias. D) availability bias.
D) Me gots two foots and two handses.
Which of the following utterances illustrates overregularization in language development? A) bababa B) Drink mild, all gone. C) Want cookie. D) Me gots two foots and two handses.
H.M.'s ______-memory was more profoundly affected by the surgery than his ______ memory. A) episodic/procedural B) eidetic/sensory C) implicit/explicit D) short-term/long-term
A) an algorithm.
A math problem calls for finding the area of a triangle. You know the formula, so you multiply 1/2 time the base times the height. You have used A) an algorithm. B) a heuristic. C) functional fixedness. D) intuition.
B) animal, mammal, dog, cocker spaniel
Which one of the following lists represents a concept hierarchy? A) cat, dog, giraffe, elephant B) animal, mammal, dog, cocker spaniel C) woman, girl, man, boy D) lemur, monkey, chimpanzee, human
C) proactive interference
Which kind of forgetting is involved when the sociology I studied yesterday makes it more difficult to learn and remember the psychology I am studying today? A) retrieval failure B) retroactive interference C) proactive interference D) decay
An implicit memory may be activated by priming, and an explicit memory may be activated by a recognizable stimulus. In either case, a psychologist would say that these memories are being A) cued. B) recalled. C) stored. D) learned.
B) thinking of an example of each term
As you study the vocabulary in this book, which method would result in the deepest level of processing? A) learning the definition given in the marginal glossary B) thinking of an example of each term C) marking each term with a highlighter each time it occurs in a sentence in the text D) glossing over it, knowing you will see it later
When you get a new cat, you will note her unique markings, so that you can remember what she looks like in comparison with other cats in the neighborhood. What would a cognitive psychologist call this process of identifying the distictive features of your cat? A) storage B) retrieval C) recollection D) encoding
D) episodic memory
Which part of long-term memory stores autobiographical information? A) semantic memory B) procedural memory C) recognition memory D) episodic memory E) eidetic memory
Remembering names is usually harder than remembering faces because names require ______, while faces require ______. A) short-term memory/long-term memory B) recall/recognition C) declarative memory/procedural memory D) encoding/retrieval
Which one of the sins of memory probably helps us avoid dangerous situations we have encountered before? A) suggestibility B) bias C) persistence D) misattribution E) absent-mindedness
A) an artificial concept
A dictionary definition would be an example of A) an artificial concept. B) a natural concept. C) a core concept. D) an abstract concept.
The inability to perceive a new use for an object.
A working-memory process in which information is merely repeated to keep it from fading.
A knowledge cluster that provides expectations about topics, objects, people, and the like in one's life.
A working-memory process in which information is actively related to information already in LTM.
A most representative example of a conceptual category.
A division of LTM that stores memories for how things are done.
Mental representations of categories of items or ideas.
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for personal events.