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Protection of rights of human subjects

during research nurses make sure the study does not violate the patients rights while meeting scientific and ethical criteria before their implementation.

Application of Research to Practice

research about nursing education,administration,and practice all affect patient care directly and indirectly. much of what bedside nurses routinely do constitutes research.The nursing process is the framework of the research process.

Evidence -Based Practice

(EBP)Is a clinical decision making that is based on a review of the scientific evidence of benefits and costs of alternative forms of diagnosis or treatment, and a critical examination of current and past practices

Evidence -Based Practice

using the science of nursing and art of nursing so that the best patient out comes are achieved

Asking Clinical questions Pico Format

p - patient
i - intervention
c-comparison of intervensions
o- outcome of the intervention

When you ask a older student why it is necessary to change the patients bed every day and the answer is we have always done it that way..This is a example of what kinda of knowledge ?

Traditional knowledge

Steps in Implementing Evidence Based Practice

Step 1 ask a question about a clinical area of interest or intervention PICO

Step 2 Collect the most relevant and best evidence level 1 (best) being strongest, level 7 lowest
Step 3 critically appraise the evidence asking 3 questions
1.What were the results of the study.
2.Are the results valid and reliable.
3. will the results of the study improve patient care.
Step 4 Integrate the evidence with the clinical expertise. patient preferences, and values in making a decision to change. Patients want to be involved in decision making of their care. if the evidence is found to support a change but the patient does not want it , the change should not occur.If not practical or too costly it also should not occur.
Step 5 Evaluate the practice decision or change - to determine if the change is working and the expected outcomes are happening .

One method of developing a theory is by first examining a general idea and then considering specific actions or ideas is

deductive reasoning

Concept is


Which type of theory focuses on clinical nursing practice.

prescriptive theories address nurse interventions and are designed to control, promote and change clinical nursing practice.

Four concepts common to nursing theories which is most important

Of the four concepts, most important is the person

When conducting research , information is collected


Which type of quantitative research is conducted to directly influence or improve clinical practice?

Applied research , is designed to directly influence or improve clinical practice.

effects of exercise and sleep on blood pressure The blood pressure is the variable

Dependent variable is the variable being studied and is determined by manipulating conditions(the independent variables)

Qualitative research developed in Anthropology

Ethnographic research

Nurse is formulating a clinical question in PICO format what is represented by P

The P in PICO format is an explicit description of the patient population of interest.
p - patient
i - intervention
c-comparison of intervensions
o- outcome of the intervention

Asking Clinical questions Pico Format

p - patient
i - intervention
c-comparison of intervensions
o- outcome of the intervention

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