the idea that the US contains so many groups that represent so many different interests that there is a virtual deadlock of government action.
The US has a political system of widely scattered resources, govt. is mainly concerned with a competition among groups. Policy results when the group with the dominant interest prevails.
"Lame Duck" Amendment: sets the end of the pres. and VP's term on Jan. 20th. Officials who will not be assuming office and would therefore be ineffectual in proposing legislation are known as lame ducks.
Categorical grants, project grants, formula grants
grants for specific purposes- often require local matching funds, restrictions
grants for specific purposes with few restrictions- to local communities
no requirement for matching funds and much greater freedom in spending decisions
emphasis on solving problems at the state and local level, rather than at the federal level.