A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Gent after Gent began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Gent U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Gent.
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
Undeclared naval war with France
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict.
Rule of 1756
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain's seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers
Wayne had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
War of 1812 (1812-1814)
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressments of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Clay's American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Bank war: its enemies and defenders
During Jackson's presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and states' rights advocates opposed the national bank, which they felt imposed discriminatory credit restrictions on local banks, making it more difficult for farmers and small businessmen to obtain loans. The bank was defended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who felt that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression.
Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
Changes in federal land laws and policies
The Land Acts of 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts of the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price of land and made it easier for prospective settlers to acquire it. This encouraged people to move west.
Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Jefferson's Inaugural Address,
"We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans" Jefferson (a Republican) declared that he wanted to keep the nation unified and avoid partisan conflicts.
Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
Burr's Secession Attempt
After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr's punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
Lewis and Clark
1804-1806 Commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Election of 1824: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
The charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition
Anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers' welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man".
Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
"To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
Bank Recharter Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
Bank Recharter Bill
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Calhoun resigns as vice-president
1832 - Calhoun, from South Carolina, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states' rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
South opposes Tariff of Abominations
The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
Jefferson Day Dinner
April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0 votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which wasn't entirely true.
Rise of the Second Party System
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Margaret Fuller (1810-1815)
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom", "progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the future will not always be as the past."
Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby Dick
Wrote Moby Dick (1851) about a Captain Ahab who seeks revenge on the white whale that crippled him but ends up losing his life, his ship, and his crew. Wasn't popular at the time but now highly regarded. Melville rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny. His views were not popular at the time, but were accepted by later generations.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass
Leaves of Grass (1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "folks". He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Millerites were Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end. The Millennial Dawnists, another sect of the Seventh-Day Adventists, believed the world was under Satan's rule and felt it their obligation to announce the Second Coming of Christ and the battle of Armageddon.
The Burned-Over District
Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Some reforms successful, some not
In the 1800's, it was usually because the general public either didn't vocally support the reform or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reforms failed if they were too far out on the political spectrum.
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Rise of labor leaders
During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Women in 1800s
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
Prison reform in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams' Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution.
Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In respone, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
Republic of Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
Annexation of Texas
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under President Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Election of 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
Election of 1844: Issues
Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
Election of 1844: Third party's impact
Third party's impact was significant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away from Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
Fifty Four - Forty or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
Congressman Abraham Lincoln (Spotty Lincoln) supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Commander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico.
John C. Fremont
Civil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take California by himself before the war began and become a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.
General Winfield Scott
Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado.
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Carolina and Creole Affairs
A group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by a ship from Carolina. The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole Affair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
1853 - After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.