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Terms in this set (98)
How many species are there in the world?
8-100 million or 10-14 million species.
Variety of earth's species; ecosystem processes of energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all life.
Set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
The biological & chemical processes such as energy flow and matter recycling needed for the survival of species, communities, and ecosystems.
The variety of genetic material within a species or a population.
The number and abundance of species present in different communities.
Variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems found in an area or on earth
Four components of Biodiversity
what does Genetic Diversity enable
life on the earth to adapt to and survive dramatic environmental changes
Earth's variety of deserts, grasslands, forests, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, and wetlands. <—Another major component of biodiversity.
What is an ecosystem a storehouse of?
genetic and species diversity
larger regions such as forests, deserts, grasslands, with distinct climates and certain species (especially vegetation) adapted to them.
What are three ways in which sharks support one or more of the four components of biodiversity within their environment?
Species Diversity, there are various types of sharks (basking, whale, hammer-head, etc.)
What does biodiversity play a critical role in?
preserving the quality of the air and water, maintaining the fertility of topsoil, decomposing and recycling waste, and controlling populations of species that humans consider to be pest.
mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items found in rocks.
entire body of evidence gathered using methods such as drilling core samples from glacier ice to examine ancient life aspects.
a challenging scientific detective game.
the process whereby earth's life changes over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of populations.
~Theory Of Evolution
all species descended from earlier, ancestral species; "Life comes from life."
Individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce under a particular set of environmental conditions than are those without the traits.
Variety in the genetic makeup of individuals in a population.
Random changes in the DNA molecules of a gene in any cell that can be inherited by offspring.
New genetic trait as a result of mutations in genes of reproductive cells passed to offspring.
Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits which produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.
Ability of one or more organisms in a population to tolerate a chemical designed to kill it.
Individual organisms must struggle constantly to survive by getting enough food, water, and other resources, to avoid being eaten, and to reproduce.
Individuals in a population with a specific advantage over other individuals were more likely to...?
survive and produce offspring that would have that same advantage. The advantage was due to a characteristic of trait.
Important scientific theory
Biological Evolution through Natural Selection.
Populations-- not individuals--evolve by...?
becoming genetically different
what does genetic variability occur through?
Most _____ are caused by random changes that occur in coded genetic instructions when DNA molecules are copied each time a cell divides and whenever an organism reproduces.
Some mutations are caused by...?
exposure to external agents such as radioactivity, x rays, and natural and human-made chemicals (CALLED MUTAGENS).
Only mutations in genes of a reproductive cell are passed to _______.
Mutations taking place in reproductive cells can result in __________
What is Differential Reproduction?
enables individuals with the trait to produce more surviving offspring than other members of the population produce.
Example of differential reproduction
In the face of snow and cold, gray wolves in a population that have thicker fur might live longer and thus produce more offspring than do those without thicker fur. As those with thicker fur reproduce, genes for the adaptive gene (thicker fur) spread through-out the population. This supports the concept of natural selection explaining how populations adapt to changes in environmental conditions.
Example of Genetic Resistance
An organism has a gene that allows it to break the chemical down into harmless chemicals. OR Genetic resistance to antibacterial drugs, or antibiotics.
Summarization of the process of biological evolution by natural selection
Genes mutate, individuals are selected, and populations evolve such that they are are better adapted to survive and reproduce under existing environmental conditions.
How did humans become such a powerful species?
strong opposable thumbs--allow grip and use of tools
ability to walk upright--agility and free use of hands
complex brain--allows us to develop many skills including ability of speech to transmit complex ideas.
"Will adaptations to new environmental through natural allow our skin to become more resistant to UV radiation?"
No because natural selection has two limitations of adaptation; A change in environmental conditions can only lead to such adaptations for genetic traits already present in a population's gene pool or for traits resulting from mutation. Second, even if a such trait were present in a population, the ability to adapt may be limited by its reproductive capacity.
Do species that can't produce large numbers of offspring take a longer time to adapt through natural selection?
Species take a longer time to adapt
Three common misconceptions about evolution through natural selection
1. "Survival of the fittest" biologically is a measure of reproductive success not strength.
2. Organisms do not develop certain traits because they need them but an ancestor of the organism had that certain trait and produced more offspring with that trait.
3. Evolution by natural selection does not involve some grand plan where species become perfectly adapted, no plan/goal for genetic perfection has been identified in the process of evolution. THIS AINT NAZI GERMANY
Huge flows of molten rock broken at the surface within the earth's interior broken into a series of gigantic solid plates.
What does effects of evolution & distribution of life shifting of tectonic plates have?
1. Location of continents and oceanic basins influence the earth's climate & ultimately determine where plants and animals can live.
2. Movement of continents has allowed species to move, adapt to new environments, and form new species through natural selection.
What happens when continents separate?
islands are formed and populations must evolve under isolated conditions or become extinct.
Earthquakes are caused by ...?
adjoining tectonic plates that move slowly past one another & sometimes shift quickly.
fissures in the earth's crust that can separate and isolate populations of species leading to the formation of new species as each isolated population changes genetically in response to new environmental conditions.
Volcanic eruptions occur along the boundaries of tectonic plates which lead to...?
the destruction of habitats and populations of species.
Two types of long-term climate changes
1. when the earth is cool and covers the planet in glacial ice
2. when the earth warms, melts the ice, and raises the sea level.
How do the two types of long-term climate changes majorily affect biological evolution...?
it determines where different types of plants and animals can survive and thrive by changing the locations of ecosystems.
Why do some species become extinct
because the climate changed too rapidly for them to adapt or survive.
What is another force affecting natural selection?
Catastrophic events such as collisions between earth and large asteroids which cause widespread destruction of ecosystems and wipe out large numbers of species.
Also cause shifts in locations of ecosystems and create opportunities for the evolution of new species.
the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
When different groups of the same population of a species become physically isolated from one another for a long period of time. A population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species.
The situation where different species may live in the same area, but properties of individuals prevent them from interbreeding.
process in which an entire species ceases to exist (biological extinction) or a population of a species becomes extinct over a large region, but not globally (local extinction).
Species that are only found in one area.
The ongoing low-level extinction of individual species over very long periods of time due to naturally occurring environmental or ecological factors such as climate change, disease, loss of habitat, or competitive disadvantage in relation to other species. (constant extinction at a low rate)
Significant rise in extinction rates above the background level.
Natural selection can lead to an entirely new species under certain circumstances
It happens when one species splits into two or more different species.
When does a new species form
when one population of species has evolved to the point where it's members can no longer breed and produce fertile offspring with members of another population that did not change or that evolved different
Most common occuration of speciation
when a barrier or distant migration prevents the flow of genes between two or more populations of a species; occurs in two phases: 1st geographic isolation, 2nd Reproductive isolation.
Geographic isolation example
part of a population may migrate in search of food which leads to them living as a separate population in another area with different environmental conditions.
What will happen if reproductive isolation continues for a long time
members of the geographically and reproductively isolated populations of sexually reproducing species may become so different in genetic makeup that they cannot produce live, fertile offspring if they are rejoined and attempt to interbreed. Then, one species becomes two and speciation has occurred.
3 features a population of species must face if environmental conditions change
ADAPT, MOVE, or BECOME EXTINCT.
1. vulnerable to extinction
2. exist on islands and in other unique areas (especially tropical rain forests where most species have highly specialized roles)
3. unlikely to migrate or adapt in the face of rapidly changing environmental conditions.
What do fossil and geological evidence indicate?
that the Earth's species have experienced at least three and probably five mass extinctions in the past 500 million years
What does mass extinction provide?
an opportunity for the evolution of new species that can fill unoccupied ecological roles or newly created ones
What follows each occurrence of mass extinction?
an increase in species diversity over several million years as new species have arisen to occupy new habitats or to exploit newly available resources
What changes with environmental conditions?
the balance between speciation and extinction determines the earth's biodiversity.
a measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness (the number of species in a community) and the evenness of species' abundances.
Variety of species, measured by the number of different species in a community.
how close in numbers each species in an environment are
What are important components of species diversity?
are species richness & species evenness
Example of species richness
A coral reef with a large number of species has high species richness while an aspen forest may have only ten plant species resulting in a low species richness.
The more even the numbers of individuals in each species are, the _____ is the species evenness in that community.
Role that a species plays in an ecosystem.
Species able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources.
Species that can only thrive in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.
Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
Other species that migrate into or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem.
Species that provide early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem.
Species whose roles have a large effect on the types and abundance of other species in an ecosystem.
Species that play a major role in shaping their communities by creating their habitats in ways that benefit other species.
Species way of life in a community and includes everything that affects its survival and reproduction. PATTERN OF LIVING
Two types of niches of species
Generalist & Specialist.
Types of Generalist
Cockroaches, flies, mice, rats, white-tailed deer, raccoons, and humans.
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions.
When are specialist are prone to extinction?
when environmental conditions change due to their narrow niches
Species with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to (1) live in only one type of habitat, (2) tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or (3) use only one type or a few types of food.
When do nonnative species spread rapidly?
when they find a new location that is favorable where they often don't face the predators and diseases they face in their native niches.
Types of indicator species
Birds, Butterflies, Frogs, Toads and other amphibian species.
An indicator species is any type of organism (animal/plant) that can be used to show how 'healthy' the habitat is.
Factors that affect amphibians & their life cycles
Habitat loss & Fragmentation, Prolonged drought, increases in UV radiation, Parasites, viral and fungal diseases, pollution, climate change, overhunting, natural immigration of, or deliberate introduction of nonnative predators and competitors.
Why we should care if amphibians go extinct
1st Amphibians are biological indicators of changes in environmental change; 2nd Would break the food chain, ultimately leading to the extinction of other species; 3rd Amphibians are a pharmaceutical resource waiting to be discovered.
Because their smaller numbers, some keystone species are more vulnerable to extinction than others. Has a large affect on the success of other species in their community. (Regulates populations of other species) Ex. pollinators and top predators
Loss of a Keystone species can lead to...?
population crashes and extinctions of other species in a community that depends on them for certain ecological services.
Species that create and enhance habitat and niches. ( keystone species can do this and more by maintaining the ecosystem and keeping it functional.)
Which statement about organic agriculture is FALSE?
Explain the concept of "cheating" in the context of mutualisms. What is the possible outcome of cheating on the stability of the mutualism?
Give the basic "formula" for photosynthesis. Briefly explain the process, using the formula as an outline. Explain the link between photosynthesis and cellular metabolism.
How does the current extinction event differ from previous mass extinctions?
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Biology Study Workbook A
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Texas Science Fusion: Grade 7
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