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What is 1 + 3?
Something is wrong because of its origin.
Attacking or praising people who make an argument rather than discussing the argument itself.
Using an appeal to popular assent by arousing feelings and enthusiasm of the multitude.
Ad Populum - Because the majority of people believe an argument, the argument must be true.
A certain stance is true because it is patriotic, and those who disagree are unpatriotic.
All the best people are doing something so it is correct.
Appeal to Tradition
Something is true because people have always believed it.
Appeal to Improper Authority
To use someone's authority in one topic to justify a different subject.
An emotional appeal to get the reader to accept a logical conclusion.
Begging the Question
Making an argument without supporting a claim used in the argument first.
Using one reason to prove another reason and the other way around.
Jumping to a conclusion when there are too few samples to prove it.
Because one event preceded a second event, the first event caused the second one.
An argument that does not follow from the previous statements A-B, D
Diverting the opposition's statement into an oversimplified version that is easier to refute.
Once the first step is taken, a second or third step will inevitably follow
An argument with only two possible choices when there are actually several.
Relying on a comparison to prove a point or stretching a comparison too far.
Using a word in a different way than the author used it in the original premise.
Argument from the Negative
Since one position is not correct, the opposite stance must be true
Argument from a Lack of Evidence
Appealing to a lack of information to prove a point or arguing that since the opposition cannot disprove a claim, it must be true.
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
Trying to prove something by using hypothetic example. If one thing had happened, this would be true now.
Phrasing a question or statement in a way that implies another unproven statement without evidence.