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Genetic Fallacy

Something is wrong because of its origin.

Ad Hominem

Attacking or praising people who make an argument rather than discussing the argument itself.

Ad Populum

Using an appeal to popular assent by arousing feelings and enthusiasm of the multitude.

Bandwagon Approach

Ad Populum - Because the majority of people believe an argument, the argument must be true.

Patriotic Approach

A certain stance is true because it is patriotic, and those who disagree are unpatriotic.

Snob Approach

All the best people are doing something so it is correct.

Appeal to Tradition

Something is true because people have always believed it.

Appeal to Improper Authority

To use someone's authority in one topic to justify a different subject.

Ad Misericordiam

An emotional appeal to get the reader to accept a logical conclusion.

Begging the Question

Making an argument without supporting a claim used in the argument first.

Circular Reasoning

Using one reason to prove another reason and the other way around.

Hasty Generalization

Jumping to a conclusion when there are too few samples to prove it.

Post Hoc

Because one event preceded a second event, the first event caused the second one.

Non Sequitur

An argument that does not follow from the previous statements A-B, D

Straw Man

Diverting the opposition's statement into an oversimplified version that is easier to refute.

Slippery Slope

Once the first step is taken, a second or third step will inevitably follow


An argument with only two possible choices when there are actually several.

Faulty Analogy

Relying on a comparison to prove a point or stretching a comparison too far.


Using a word in a different way than the author used it in the original premise.

Argument from the Negative

Since one position is not correct, the opposite stance must be true

Argument from a Lack of Evidence

Appealing to a lack of information to prove a point or arguing that since the opposition cannot disprove a claim, it must be true.

Hypothesis Contrary to Fact

Trying to prove something by using hypothetic example. If one thing had happened, this would be true now.

Complex Question

Phrasing a question or statement in a way that implies another unproven statement without evidence.

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