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23 terms

Logical Fallacies

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Genetic Fallacy
Something is wrong because of its origin.
Ad Hominem
Attacking or praising people who make an argument rather than discussing the argument itself.
Ad Populum
Using an appeal to popular assent by arousing feelings and enthusiasm of the multitude.
Bandwagon Approach
Ad Populum - Because the majority of people believe an argument, the argument must be true.
Patriotic Approach
A certain stance is true because it is patriotic, and those who disagree are unpatriotic.
Snob Approach
All the best people are doing something so it is correct.
Appeal to Tradition
Something is true because people have always believed it.
Appeal to Improper Authority
To use someone's authority in one topic to justify a different subject.
Ad Misericordiam
An emotional appeal to get the reader to accept a logical conclusion.
Begging the Question
Making an argument without supporting a claim used in the argument first.
Circular Reasoning
Using one reason to prove another reason and the other way around.
Hasty Generalization
Jumping to a conclusion when there are too few samples to prove it.
Post Hoc
Because one event preceded a second event, the first event caused the second one.
Non Sequitur
An argument that does not follow from the previous statements A-B, D
Straw Man
Diverting the opposition's statement into an oversimplified version that is easier to refute.
Slippery Slope
Once the first step is taken, a second or third step will inevitably follow
Either/Or
An argument with only two possible choices when there are actually several.
Faulty Analogy
Relying on a comparison to prove a point or stretching a comparison too far.
Equivocation
Using a word in a different way than the author used it in the original premise.
Argument from the Negative
Since one position is not correct, the opposite stance must be true
Argument from a Lack of Evidence
Appealing to a lack of information to prove a point or arguing that since the opposition cannot disprove a claim, it must be true.
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
Trying to prove something by using hypothetic example. If one thing had happened, this would be true now.
Complex Question
Phrasing a question or statement in a way that implies another unproven statement without evidence.