How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

97 terms

Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

Human Anatomy and Physiology Eighth Edition
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
the study of structures and their relationships
Physiology
the study of how body parts function
Levels of Organization
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal
Tissues
Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, Nervous
Organ Sytems
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
Life Processes
Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Reproduction
Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions that transport energy
Two types of metabolism
Catabolism and Anabolism
Catabolism
large molecules broke down into small molecules to relase energy
Anabolism
small molecules build to form large molecules using energy from catabolism
ATP
stored energy
Responsiveness
ability to detect and respond to internal and external changes
Differentiation
change in function
Homeostasis
maintain stable internal environment within physical limits
Negative feedback
do something to stop something ex. temp control
Positive feedback
building on the same action, ex. child birth
Anterior
Front
Posterior
back
Dorsal
back
Ventral
front
Medial
middle
Lateral
away from the middle
Superior
above
inferior
below
Distal
further away from the point of origin
Proximal
closer to the point of origin
Superficial
near the surface
Deep
away from the surface
Sagittal Plane
longitudinal, divides the body left and right
Transverse Plane
Cross, divides the body top and bottom aka superior and inferior
Frontal Plane
Coronal, divides the body front and back aka anterior and posterior
Oblique Plane
divides through the body at an angle
Dorsal Cavity
cavity consisting of the cranial and vertebral cavity
Ventral cavity
cavity consisting of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity (4)
L and R pleural cavities, Mediastinal cavity and Pericardial cavity
L and R Pleural Cavities
cavities of the lungs
Mediastinal Cavity
Cavity with the esohagus and trachea
Pericardial Cavity
Cavity of ther heart
Serous membranes
lines the cavities or covers the organs
Parietal membranes
lines the cavities
Visceral membranes
covers the organs
Pleura
lungs
pericardium
heart
peritoneum
abdominopelvic
Serous fluid
fluid filling the space in between the membranes
Quadrants
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
Nine Regions
R and L Hypochondriac, R and L Lumbar, R and L Iliac, Epigastric, Umbilical, Hypogastric
Hydrophilic
Water loving phosphate
Hydrophobic
water fearing phosphate
Cell Structure
membranous, nucleus, cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Vessicles, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Perioxosomes, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton
Function of membrane in cell
regulates the passage of subtstances, made of phospolipid bilayer
H2O, O2, CO2
pass freely by diffusion
Diffusion
movement from higher concentration to lower concentration
Nucleus is made up of
phospholipid bilayer, Muclear envelope, DNA, Nucleolus
Nucleolus
Packed area of ribosomes (RNA)
Function of nucleus
DNA replication by mitosis, protein synthesis
Cytoplasm
area inside cell region containing organelles, provides medium for transport, provides pressure to keep cell expanded
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
function is lipid/fat synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
contains ribosomes on the outer membrane, continuous with the nuclear envelope, function is protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus
membranous, function is repacking and distributing -proteins and lipids from vessicles pinches off secretory vessicles sending to proper destination
Lysosomes
contain a digestive enzyme that eat away at membrane to release proteins and lipids
Perioxisomes
Peroxide
Ribosomes
membranous, protein synthesis
Mitochondria
membranous, inner membrane is folded because it is bigger than outer membrane, site of cellular respiration, ATP production, Energy molecule of cell, has its own DNA can self replicate
Cytoskeleton
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
CIlia
Hairlike moves the environment
Flagella
whiplike, moves the cell
Centrioles
nonmembranous, found near the the nucleus, produce microtubules to form the mitotic spindle
Hypertonicity
higher concentration outside
Hypotonicity
lower concentration outside
Isotonicity
equal concentration
Passive transport
no energy required
Facilitated diffusion
uses a carrier molecule
Active transport
requires energy
Endocytosis
engulfing
Phagocytosis
engulfing solid
Pinocytosis
engulfing liquid
Atrophy
shrink smaller than normal
Hypertrophy
larger than normal
Adenine attaches to
Thymine
Guanine attaches to
Cytosine
DNA Helicase
unzips the nucleotide bond
DNA Ligase
repairs damaged DNA
How many pairs of chromosomes
23
Interphase
G1 S G2 Growth DNA replication preparation for mitosis
Early Prophase
Chromatin condenses froming chromosomes, froming the mitotic spindle
Late Prophase
nuclear envelope fragments
Metaphase
two centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell, chromsomes cluster at the middle
Anaphase
Chromsomes split
Telophase
cell begin to split, frominga cleavage furrow
Transcription
involves the transfer of information froma a DNA's base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of an mRNA
Translation
takes a message in one language abd restates it in another
Mitosis
series of events that parcel out the replicated DNA of the mother cell to two daughter cells
Major Groups that cause disease
Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Parasites, proteins
Prokaryotes
have fimbriae, pilus, smaller ribosomes, endospores, DNA in nucleoid and plasmid, single circular chromosomes
Eukaryotes
Cilia, bigger ribosomes, cytoskeleton, many linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, have nucleus
Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Glycocalyx, Flagella, Cell Wall, Plasma membrane